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Gemstone & Mineral Guide

This chart shows different stone details with descriptions.

S. N. Names Family Color Moh's Hardness Density Transparency Occurance Country of Origin Chemical Composition Short Description
1 AEGIRINE clinopyroxene group of inosilicates Dark Green, Greenish Black 6 3.5 to 3.54 Transparent Common Norway,Buskerud,Kongsberg pyroxene group Aegirine is the sodium endmember of the aegirine-augite series. Aegirine occurs as dark green monoclinic prismatic crystals. It has a glassy luster and perfect cleavage.
2 ADAMITE Olivenite Yellow 3.5 4.32 - 4.48 Translucent Common Mexico Zinc Arsenic Hyroxide Adamite is a zinc arsenate hydroxide mineral, Zn2AsO4OH. It is a mineral that typically occurs in the oxidized or weathered zone above zinc ore occurrences. Pure adamite is colorless.
3 ADULARIA Another name for Orthoclase. Please see Orthoclase
4 AGATE Chalcedony White, grey, green, yellow, brown 6½ - 7 2.58 - 2.64 Opaque Very Common Angola, Armenia, Bulgaria, India, Jamaica, Panama, Papua New Guinea Silicon Dioxide Agate is a microcrystalline variety of quartz, chiefly chalcedony, characterized by its fineness of grain and brightness of color. Although agates may be found in various kinds of rock, they are classically associated with volcanic rocks but can be common in certain metamorphic rocks.
5 AGATE W/ AMETHYST Please see Agate & Amethyst
7 ALABASTER Gypsum White, pink, brown 2 2.32 Translucent to Opaque Common Italy Hydrated Calcium Sulfate Alabaster is a substance is sulphate of lime or gypsum. Alabaster is a fine-grained variety of gypsum. It is one of the softest minerals known to nature and It is widely used as an ornamental stone in sculpture.
8 ALABANDITE Galena group Iron black,brown,green, green 3.5 to 4 3.95 - 4.04 opaque Aydin in turkey, Alabanda Manganese sulfide Group of octahedral alabandite crystals partially coated with pink rhodochrosite.
9 ALBITE Feldspar White, blue, grey 6 - 6½ 2.6 - 2.65 Transparent to Translucent Common Angola, Antarctica, Argentina, Armenia, Tunisia, Thailand, Turkey Sodium Aluminum Silicate Albite is a common felspar and is the "pivot" mineral of two different feldspar series. It is most often associated with the plagioclase series where it is an end member of this series.
10 ALBITE JADE Please see Albite & Jade
11 ALEXANDRITE Chrysoberyl dark red, yellow-red, dark green, orange-yellow 3.64 - 3.68 Transparent to Translucent Uncommon Sri Lanka, India, Mongolia, Paraguay, Slovakia, Ukraine, Uruguay, Yemen Beryllium Aluminum Oxide The alexandrite variety displays a color change dependent upon light, along with strong pleochroism. Alexandrite results from small scale replacement of aluminum by chromium oxide, which is responsible for alexandrite's characteristic green to red color change.
12 ALMANDINE Garnet Red with violet tint 7 - 7½ 3.93 - 4.30 Translucent Common Afghanistan, Algeria, Brazil, Burma , Colombia, Guatemala, Nepal Iron Aluminum Silicate Almandine, also known incorrectly as almandite, is a species of mineral belonging to the garnet Group. Almandine is an iron alumina garnet, of deep red color, inclining to purple.
13 ALLOPHANE Kaolinite-serpentine White,green, blue 3 1.9 Translucent grafenthal,germany Hydrous Aluminium silicate clay mineraloid Allophane is a weathering or hydrothermal alteration product of volcanic glass and feldspars and sometimes has a composition similar to kaolinite but generally has a molar ratio of Al:Si = 2. It typically forms under mildly acidic to neutral pH (5-7).
14 ALUMINUM Metal Bright grey, silver 2.7 Opaque Common Azerbaijan, China, Italy, Russia Aluminum Oxide Aluminum is a soft, durable, lightweight, malleable metal with appearance ranging from silvery to dull grey, depending on the surface roughness. Aluminum is nonmagnetic and nonsparking.
15 ALUNITE Alunite White, yellow- grey 3½ - 4 2.6 - 2.9 Translucent Uncommon Bulgaria, Canada, Chile, China, Eritrea, Egypt, Fiji, Ecuador, France, Philippines Hydrous Potassium Aluminum Sulfate Alunite is also known as alumstone and is a source of the chemical known as alum. Alunite forms from the action of sulfuric acids upon potassium rich feldspars in a process called "alunitization".
16 AMAZONITE Feldspar Microcline Green, blue-green, light green 6 - 6½ 2.56 - 2.58 Opaque Uncommon Burma, Portugal, Madagascar, Russia, Zimbabwe, South Africa, Potassium Aluminum Silicate Amazonite is a green variety of microcline feldspar. The name is taken from that of the Amazon River, from which certain green stones were formerly obtained, but it is doubtful whether green feldspar occurs in the Amazon area.
17 AMBER Organic Amber Yellow, brown, orange-red 2 - 2½ 1.05 - 1.09 Transparent to Translucent Common Israel, Germany, Japan, Lebanon, Lithuania, Malaysia Succinic Acid Amber is fossil tree resin, which is appreciated for its color and beauty. Although not mineralized, it is often classified as a gemstone.
18 AMBLYGONITE Amblygonite White, Yellow, grey, blue-grey, green 5.5-6 2.98 - 3.11 Translucent Common Germany Hydroxyy phosphate of aluminum Amblygonite is a fluorophosphate mineral. The mineral occurs in pegmatite deposits and is easily mistaken for albite and other feldspars. Amblygonite forms a series with montebrasite, the low fluorine endmember.
19 AMETHYST Quartz Light to dark purple, violet 7 2.65 Transparent to Translucent Common Azerbaijan, Bulgaria, Cambodia, Chile, Finland, India, Kazakhstan, Laos, Malawi Silicon Dioxide Amethyst is a violet variety of quartz often used in jewelry. The name comes from the Ancient Greek a- ("not") and methustos ("intoxicated"), a reference to the belief that the stone protected its owner from drunkenness.
20 AMETHYST W/ AGATE Quartz Light to dark purple, violet 7 2.65 Transparent to Translucent Common Azerbaijan, Bulgaria, Cambodia, Chile, Finland, India, Kazakhstan, Laos, Malawi Silicon Dioxide Amethyst is a violet variety of quartz often used in jewelry. The name comes from the Ancient Greek a- ("not") and methustos ("intoxicated"), a reference to the belief that the stone protected its owner from drunkenness.
21 AMETRINE Quartz Red, Yellow, Black, Green, Blue 6½ - 7 2.6 - 2.65 Transparent to Translucent Uncommon Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, India, South Africa, USA Silicon Dioxide Ametrine, also known as trystine or by its trade name as bolivianite, is a naturally occurring variety of quartz. It is a mixture of amethyst and citrine with zones of purple and yellow or orange. Green-yellow or golden-blue ametrine does not exist naturally.
22 AMMOLITE Fossilized Blue, violet, green, red, pink 4.5 - 5.5 2.8 Opaque Uncommon USA & Canada Calcium Carbonate Ammolite is an 'opal like', organic gemstone that is formed from fossilized, extinct mollusks called Ammonites. Ammonites were a squid-like marine animal and existed through out the Paleozoic Era until the end of the Crustaceous Era.
23 AMMONITE Organic Fossilized Grey, brown, white, red, green 6 - 6½ 2.8 Opaque Uncommon USA & Canada Calcium Carbonate Ammonites are excellent index fossils, and it is often possible to link the rock layer in which a particular species or genus is found to specific geological time periods.
24 AMPHIBOLIC ROCK Metamorphic Rock Black, green, white 5.5-6 2.85 Opaque Common Austria, Sweden, USA, Germany, France Mineral Grouping Amphibolite is a grouping of rocks composed mainly of amphibole and plagioclase feldspars, with little or no quartz. It is typically dark-colored and heavy, with a weakly foliated or schistose (flaky) structure.
25 AMPHIBOLITE W/ GARNET See Amphibolic Rock
26 ANALCIME Zeolite Colorless, white, pink, yellow, green 5 - 5½ 2.22 -2.29 Translucent to Opaque Very Common Angola, Armenia, Australia, Argentina, Azerbaijan, Bolivia, Brazil, Belgium Hydrated Sodium Aluminum Silicate Analcime is a popular and interesting mineral. It is sometimes known as analcite, although analcime is preferred.
27 ANATASE Oxide minerals Black, red, brown, yellow, dark blue, grey 5½ - 6 3.82 - 3.97 Transparent to Translucent Uncommon Bolivia, Brazil, Cameroon, Canada, Spain, Sudan, Sweden Titanium Oxide More commonly known as octahedrite, a name which, indeed, is earlier than anatase, and given because of the common (acute) octahedral habit of the crystals. Other names, now obsolete, are oisanite and dauphinite.
28 ANDALUSITE Andalusite Yellow-green, brown, grey-green 3.05 - 3.20 Translucent to Opaque Very Common Andorra, Armenia, Burma, Egypt, Hungary, India Aluminum Silicate Andalusite is an Aluminum nesosilicate mineral. The variety chiastolite commonly contains dark inclusions of carbon or clay which form a checker-board pattern when shown in cross-section. A clear variety first found in Andalusia, Spain.
29 ANDERSONITE Carbonate Bright yellow green, green 2.79 - 2.87 Translucent to Opaque Uncommon Hillside mine, Bagdad, Yavapai County, Arizona, USA Hydrated Sodium Calcium Uranyl Carbonate Andersonite is a rare uranyl carbonate mineral, that was only described in the last half century. It has a luster that seems to glow and in fact it is very fluorescent. Andersonite specimens will usually glow a bright lemon yellow in ultraviolet light.
30 ANDORITE Orthorhombic Dark steel-gray, may tarnish yellow or iridescent 3 - 3.5 5.33 - 5.37 Opaque Common Bolivia, China, France, Russia, USA Lead Silver Antimony Andorite was first described in 1892 for an occurrence in the Baia Sprie mine, Baia Sprie, Maramures County, Romania, and named for Hungarian amateur mineralogist Andor von Semsey Andorite occurs in low-temperature polymetallic hydrothermal veins.
31 ANDRADITE Garnet Green, black, brown, yellow-brown 6½ - 7 3.7 - 4.1 Translucent to Opaque Uncommon Ecuador, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Greenland, India, Serbia Calcium Iron Silicate Andradite is a species of the Garnet Group.
32 ANGLESITE Baryte Yellow, green 2.5-3.0 6.3 Transparent to translucent Tsumeb, Southwest africa Lead Sulfate Anglesite is a lead sulfate mineral with the chemical formula PbSO4. It occurs as an oxidation product of primary lead sulfide ore, galena.
33 ANGELITE Colorless, white, yellow, gray, blue, orange-red, red, pink, purple 3 - 3.5 2.98 Transparent to translucent Calcium sulfate barite is useful as a weighting agent for drilling fluids in oil and gas exploration. Other uses are in added-value applications which include the car, electronics, TV screen, rubber, and glass ceramics and paint industry, radiation shielding and medical
34 ANNABERGITE Vivianite Green, rose, light grey-light green, white 1½ - 2½ 3.07 Translucent to Opaque Uncommon Netherlands, New Zealand, Oman, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Turkey, Zimbabwe Hydrated Nickel Arsenate Annabergite is a mineral consisting of a hydrous nickel arsenate. Crystals are minute and capillary and rarely met with, the mineral occurring usually as soft earthy masses and encrustations.
35 ANORTHOCLASE Feldspar White,yellow, pink 6-6.5 2.57-2.6 Transparent Sicily, Italy sodium-aluminium silicate Anorthoclase is doubly terminated anorthoclase crystal from Kinki Region, Honshu island, Japan
36 ANORTHOSITE Feldspar Colorless, red- grey, white 6 - 6½ 2.74 - 2.76 Opaque Common Brazil, Cameroon, Canada, Chile, China, Cost Rica, Hungary Calcium Aluminum Silicate Anorthosite on Earth can be divided into two types: Proterozoic and Archean. These two types of anorthosite have different modes of occurrence, appear to be restricted to different periods in Earth's history, and are thought to have had different origins.
37 ANTHRACITE Coal Teal, black, blue-grey, green 3.0 - 3.8 1.3–1.4 Opaque Uncommon Austria, China, France, Germany, Switzerland, Ukraine, USA, Complex Mixture Anthracite are blue coal, hard coal, stone coal, blind coal (in Scotland), Kilkenny coal (in Ireland), crow coal (or craw coal from its shiny black appearance), and black diamond.
38 ANTIMONITE Stibnite Lead-grey with pale blue tint 2 4.63 Translucent to Opaque Uncommon Costa Rica, Cuba, Czech Republic, Ghana, Greece, Guatemala, Hungary Antimony Sulfide Stibnite has no significant uses, except as a precursor to antimony oxide, which is the most commonly marketed form of antimony. In ancient times, it was used as mascara called kohl.
39 APATITE Apatite colorless, pink, yellow, green, blue, violet 5 3.16 - 3.23 Translucent to Opaque Very Common Armenia, Brazil, Cameroon, Chile, Colombia, Cuba, Ecuador, Eritrea, Gabon Calcium phosphate with chlorine, fluorite, Hydroxyyl Apatite is one of few minerals that are produced and used by biological micro-environmental systems. Fluoro-Chloro Apatite forms the basis of the, now obsolete, Halophosphor fluorescent tube phosphor system. Is also called Cat's Eye.
40 APACHE GOLD STONE Please check gold.
41 APOPHYLLITE Apophyllite Many Shades 4.5 - 5 2.3 - 2.4 Transparent to Translucent Common India, USA, Mexico, Iceland Potassium Calcite Fluorite Hydroxide The name apophyllite refers to a specific group of phyllosilicates, a class of minerals. Originally, the group name referred to a specific mineral, but was redefined in 1978 to stand for a class of minerals of similar chemical makeup that comprise a solid solution series.
42 AQUAMARINE Beryl Light blue to dark blue, blue-green 7½ - 8 2.68 - 2.74 Transparent to Translucent Very Common Malawi, Mongolia, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Norway, Portugal, Vietnam, Zambia, Zimbabwe Beryllium Aluminum Silicate Aquamarine is a gemstone-quality transparent variety of beryl, having a delicate blue or turquoise color, suggestive of the tint of seawater. It is closely related to the gem emerald.
43 AQUAMARINE W/ MORGANITE Please see Aquamarine and Morganite
45 AQUAPRASE Please see Aquamarine
46 AQUA TEEN Please see Aquamarine.
47 ARAGONITE Aragonite Colorless, white, brown, grey, yellow, red, pink, purple, orange, blue, green 3½ - 4 2.947 Translucent to Opaque Common Spain, Italy, Mexico, USA, Pakistan, Brazil Calcium Carbonate Aragonite is the second most common polymorph of natural calcium carbonate (the most common is calcite). It is significantly less widespread and abundant than calcite and is formed under a much narrower range of physio-chemical conditions.
48 ARSENOPYRITE Arsenopyrite Silver-white to steel-grey 5½ - 6 6.07 Opaque Uncommon Ghana, Uzbekistan, Vietnam, Zimbabwe Iron Arsenic Sulfide A major ore of arsenic, Arsenopyite can contain a small amount of gold as an impurity. Although an ore of arsenic, it is not intentionally mined for that reason.
49 ARTISANS An artisan is a skilled manual worker who crafts items that may be functional or strictly decorative, including furniture, clothing, jewelry, household items, and tools. The term can also be used as an adjective to refer to the craft of hand making food products, such as bread, beverages and cheese.
50 ASBESTOS Silicate Lavender, blue, green, white 2 - 5 2 - 2.8 Translucent to Opaque Common Afghanistan, Angola, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, China, Egypt, Finland, France, Germany Sodium Iron Magnesium Silicate Hydroxyide Asbestos is a naturally occurring silicate mineral with long, thin fibrous crystals. The word asbestos is derived from a Greek adjective meaning inextinguishable.
52 ASTROPHYLLITE Inosilicates Golden brown to yellow, black, green 3½ - 4 3.2–3.4 Opaque Uncommon Mont-Saint-Hilaire, Quebec, Canada; Pikes Peak, Colorado, USA Potassium Sodium Iron Manganese Titanium Silicate Hydroxyide Astrophyllite is a very rare, brown to golden-yellow hydrous potassium iron titanium silicate mineral. Belonging to the astrophyllite group, astrophyllite may be classed either as an inosilicate, phyllosilicate, or an intermediate between the two.
53 ASTROPHYLLITE W/ EUDIALYTE Please see Astrophyllite and Eudialite
54 AURICHALCITE Carbonate Pale green, sky blue, blue-green 3.96 Transparent Uncommon Morocco, Namibia, Norway, Vietnam, Zambia Zinc Copper Carbonate Hydroxyide Aurichalcite is a carbonate mineral, usually found as a secondary mineral in copper and zinc deposits.
55 AUTUNITE Autunite Green-yellow, pale green, dark green 2 - 2½ 3.05 - 3.2 Translucent to Opaque Uncommon Germany, Hungary, Italy, New Zealand, Slovakia, Uzbekistan Hydrated Copper Uranium Phosphate Autunite is one of the more attractive and popular radioactive minerals. The uranium in its chemical formula provides this radioactivity. Autunite is probably the most popular uranium mineral for collectors.
56 AVENTURINE Beryl Green, red-brown, gold-brown 7 2.64 - 2.69 Translucent to Opaque Common Austria, Germany, India, Slovakia, South Africa, USA, Silicon Dioxide Aventurine is generally cut into curved pieces for necklaces or other jewels, or for use as pendants, but is also much used for carving and figurines. Aventurine is a form of Quartz.
57 AZURITE Azurite Dark blue, violet 3½ - 4 3.7 - 3.9 Opaque Common Bulgaria, Canada, Chile, Hungary, Greenland, Jamaica, Japan Hydroxyy of Copper Carbonate Azurite is a soft, deep blue copper mineral produced by weathering of copper ore deposits. The blue of azurite is exceptionally deep and clear.
58 AZURMALACHITE Carbonate Blue and green, turquoise bands 3.5 - 4 3.70 - 3.95 Translucent to Opaque Rare United States, France, Nambia Copper Carbonate Hydroxide Azurite is a mixture of azurite and malachite. It is an attractive stone which combines vivid blue colour of azurite and saturated green colour of malachite. It can be cut into cabochons or used for small objects d'art.
59 BABINGTONITE Calcium Iron Silicate Green to Black and Brown 6 3.3 Translucent Uncommon India, China Calcium Iron Silicate Hydroxide Babingtonite is a calcium iron manganese inosilicate mineral. It is a very dark green to black translucent (in thin crystals or splinters) mineral crystallizing in the triclinic system with typically radial short prismatic clusters and druzy coatings.
60 BANDED HORNSTONE Metamorphic Rock Grey, light brown, black 7.5-8 3.05 Opaque Uncommon America, South America, Asia, Australia, Europe Complex Silicate of Aluminium and Alkalies with Hydroxyl Hornstones are fine-grained nonfoliated metamorphic rocks with no specific composition. They are produced by contact metamorphism. They are "baked" while near a heat source such as a magma chamber, sill or dike.
61 BANDED JASPER Chalcedony Banded All colors, mostly striped, or spotted 6½ - 7 2.58 - 2.91 Opaque Common Egypt, Australia, Brazil, India, Canada, Kazakhstan, Madagascar, Russia Silicon Dioxide Uniformly colored jasper is rare usually it is multicolored, striped or flamed. Sometimes jasper can be grown together with agate or opal.
62 BARITE Barite Colorless, brown, yellow, red, green, blue 3 - 3½ 4.43 - 4.46 Transparent Common Spain, Germany, Canada, France, India, Romania and localities in US Barium Sulphate Barite is useful as a weighting agent for drilling fluids in oil and gas exploration. Other uses are in added-value applications which include the car, electronics, TV screen, rubber, and glass ceramics and paint industry, radiation shielding and medical applications.
63 BASALT Pyroxene Dark grey, dark green, dark brown, black 2 2.9 Opaque Very Common Czech Republic Plagioclase feldspar, pyroxene, olivine, magnetite, and ilmenite Basalt is a local material used for road paving and crushed stone for read and railroad ballast; also used in a minor way as building stone and as raw material for the production of rock wool and glass wool.
64 BASTNAESITE Bastnasite Pale white, tan, gray, brown, yellow and pink 4 - 4.5 4.7 - 5 Translucent to Opaque Common Sweden, Norway, Mongolia, Turkey Cerium Lanthanum Yttrium Carbonate Fluoride Bastnasite, which is sometimes spelled as bastnaesite, is one of a few rare earth carbonate minerals. It gets its name from its type locality, Bastnas Mine, Riddarhyttan, Vastmanland, Sweden., it is wide spread and one of the more common rare earth carbonates.
66 BAUXITE Aluminum oxide Beige, yellow, white, grey, brown 1½ - 2 2.8 to 3.25 Opaque Very Common Australia, Austria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil Iron and Aluminum Hydroxyides Bauxite is a naturally occurring, heterogeneous material composed primarily of one or more aluminum Hydroxyide minerals, plus various mixtures of silica, iron oxide, titania, aluminosilicate, and other impurities in minor or trace amounts.
67 BENAVIDESITE Sulfosalt mineral Lead Grey 2.7 5.6 Opaque Uncommon Japan, Peru, Romania, Sweden Sulfosalt Sulfide Benavidesite is a mineral group of sulfosalts.
68 BENITOITE Metamorphic Rock Light blue to deep indigo blue 6 - 6.5 3.6 Transparent to Translucent Rare USA, Japan Barium titanium silicate Benitoite was first discovered in 1907, and upon its initial discovery was thought to be Sapphire. The crystal structure of Benitoite is unique, and is the only significant mineral in its crystal class. It crystallizes in a rare hexagonal sub-class called ditrigonal-dipyramidal.
69 BERYL Beryl Gold-yellow, yellow-green, yellow, pink, colorless 7½ - 8 2.66 - 2.87 Translucent to Opaque Common Germany, Hungary, Italy, New Zealand, Slovakia, India, Uzbekistan, Italy Beryllium Aluminum Silicate Beryl is colorless in pure form; it is the many different impurities that give beryl its varied coloration. Beryl is praised for its transparency, high hardness, and beautiful colors with wide range of tones and shades.
70 BERYLLONITE Beryl White to Plate Yellow 5.5 - 6 2.8 Transparent to Translucent Uncommon USA, Brazil, Afghanistan Sodium Beryllium Phosphate Beryllonite is a rare beryllium mineral. It is found at only a few places around the world. It can be cut as gems, but lacks the color, fire, and hardness necessary to be a popular gemstone.
71 BIRDS EYE Please check Rhyolite.
72 BIOTITE Mica Dark brown, green brown, dark brown, yellow, white 2.5-3 2.8 - 3.4 Opaque Uncommon Italy, Switzerland, Australia Potassium iron magnesium aluminum silicate Hydroxyide fluoride Biotite is a common phyllosilicate mineral within the mica group. It refers to the dark mica series, primarily a solid-solution series.
73 BISMUTHINITE Aikinite Lead grey to tin white 2 - 2½ 6.78 Opaque Uncommon Bulgaria, Burundi, Canada, Chile, China, Hungary, India Bismuth Sulfide Bismuthinite is an important ore of bismuth. Sprays of steel gray prismatic bismuthinite crystals radiate outward from a common attachment point in the more spectacular specimens of this somewhat rare sulfide mineral.
74 BIXBITE Beryl Light red to dark red 7.5 - 8 2.67 - 2.84 Translucent to Opaque Uncommon USA Beryllium Aluminum Silicate Bixbite (or red beryl) is the red color variety of the beryl family of minerals. This gemstone gets its rich red coloring form the traces of manganese added to the basic beryl mineral formula. Bixbite is generally quite rare and is usually very small in size due it's scarcity.
75 BLADE CALCITE Calcite Colorless, blue, pink, orange, green, red, yellow, black, white 3 2.69 - 2.71 Translucent to Opaque Uncommon South Africa, Australia, Burma, India, Namibia, United States, Zambia, Germany Calcium Carbonate Calcite is a carbonate mineral and the most stable polymorph of calcium carbonate. The other polymorphs are the minerals aragonite and vaterite.
76 BLUE LACE AGATE Please see Agate
77 BLUE QUARTZ Please see Quartz
78 BLUE SLAG COPPER Please see copper.
79 BLUE TOPAZ Topaz Colorless, yellow, red-brown, light blue, pink-red, violet, light green 8 3.49 - 3.57 Translucent to Opaque Uncommon Brazil, Afghanistan, Burma, China, Japan, Madagascar, Mexico, Namibia, Nigeria, Hydroxyy silicate of Aluminum with fluorite and iron The name topaz is most probably derived from a place of discovery on an island in the Red Sea, now Zebirget but formerly Topazos. Colors of gemstone that is today called topaz are rarely vivid.
81 BOLEITE Halides Indigo blue, Light blue. 3-3.5 4.8-5.1 Transparent to subtranslucent Boleo, Baja California, Mexico. Hydroxychloride of potassium, lead, silver and copper Boleite is a highly attractive, though uncommon, blue mineral that forms in very distinct crystal habits. Its crystals can be perfectly cubic, both in individual isolated crystals, and may be perched on fragile matrix
82 BOLTWOODITE Uranium silicate mineral Pale yellow 3½ - 4 4.7 Transparent to Translucent Uncommon Argentina, Australia, Czech Republic, France, Germany, Japan, Mexico Hydrated Potassium Uranyl Silicate Hydroxyide Boltwoodite is a hydrated potassium uranyl silicate mineral. It is formed from the oxidation and alteration of primary uranium ores.
83 BORACITE Tektoborates Whitish Green 7 - 7.5 2.91 - 3.1 Transparent to Translucent Uncommon England, India Magnesium Borate Chloride Boracite produces crystals of various colours with vitreous to adamantine lustre. It has good clarity and hardness, but it is slightly soluble in water. This fact limits the use of boracite as a gemstone. It is named so due to its high amount of Boron.
84 BORAX Tincalconite-Borax Colorless, grey, white, yellow, blue, green 2 - 2½ 1.715 Translucent to Opaque Uncommon Argentina, Bolivia, China, India, Italy, Mexico, Turkey, USA Hydrated Sodium Borate The term borax is used for a number of closely related minerals or chemical compounds that differ in their crystal water content, but usually refers to the decahydrate.
85 BORNITE Sulfide mineral Brown, copper red 3 5.06 - 5.09 Opaque Uncommon Afghanistan, Argentina, Atlantic Ocean, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada Sulfide of Copper and Iron Bornite has a brown to copper-red color on fresh surfaces that tarnishes to various iridescent shades of blue to purple in places. Its striking iridescence gives it the nickname peacock copper or peacock ore.
86 BOTRYOIDAL CHALCEDONY Please see Chalcedony
87 BOURNONITE Bournonite Steel-grey, black 2½ - 3 5.83 Opaque Uncommon Argentina, Australia, Austria, Bolivia, Bulgaria, Canada, Channel Islands, Chile, China, Colombia, Ethiopia, Fiji Lead Copper Antimony Sulfide Bournonite is a sulfosalt mineral species, a sulfantimonite of lead and copper.
88 BOUSSINGAULTITE Picromerite Colorless, Yellow pink, Light yellow, Pink. 2 1.7 Transparent Uncommon Tuscany, Italy Sulfate mineral Boussingaultite is monoclinic symmetry and forms clear, often rounded crystals.
89 BRAZILIANITE Phosphate Yellow, green, colorless 4.5 - 5 2.45 Transparent to Translucent Uncommon Brazil, USA Sodium Aluminum Phosphate Hydroxide Brazilianite, whose name derives from its country of origin, Brazil, is a typically yellow-green phosphate mineral, most commonly found in phosphate-rich pegmatites. One noted deposit of brazilianite is in the surroundings of Conselheiro Pena, in Minas Gerais, Brazil.
90 BRECCIATED WHITE Please check jaspher.
91 BROOKITE Oxide minerals Brown, yellow- brown, red-brown 5½ - 6 4.08 - 4.18 Transparent to Translucent Uncommon Australia, Belarus, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Chile, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Madagascar, Morocco Titanium Oxide Brookite is orthorhombic, and one of the four naturally occurring polymorphs (minerals with the same composition but different structure). Brookite is rare compared to anatase and rutile and, like these forms, it exhibits photocatalytic activity.
92 BRONZITE Pyroxene Greenish brown 5.5 3.35 Transparent,To opaque magnesium iron silicate Bronzite is an iron-bearing variety of Enstatite from Austria. It has green-brown colour with bronze-like sub-metallic lustre. It was known long before Enstatite.
93 BRUCITE Brucite White, pale green, blue, gray 2.5-3 2.39 - 2.4 Transparent New Jersey, USA Magnesium hydroxide Brucite is most often in crude, uninteresting form, but several localities produce distinct and interesting crystals which are highly desirable to collectors. Brucite may form as a standalone mineral.
94 BRUNO JASPER Please check jasper.
95 BUDDSTONE Chalcedony Leek-Green, Yellow-Green 7 2.61 Translucent to Opaque Uncommon Australia, Brazil, India, Kazakhstan, Madagascar, Russia, Zimbabwe, South Africa, Tanzania Silicon dioxide The name buddstone has been given to a green chlorite-rich Chrysoprase with white veining, found in southern Africa.
96 BUMBLE BEE JASPER Calcium carbonate
98 BUTTER JADE Please see Jade
99 BYRATO CALCITE Monoclinic Colourless, white, greyish, greenish, light yellow 4 3.66 - 3.71 Transparent, Translucent Common England, UK Byrato calcite has at least one perfect and one imperfect cleavage. It is a brittle mineral, and breaks with an uneven to conchoidal fracture.
100 BYSTRITE Cancrinite Yellow 5 2.43 Transparent to Translucent Uncommon south of Lake Baikal, Siberia, Russia Silicate mineral Bystrite has a structure that is shared with many of the minerals in the cancrinite group. It exhibits a hexagonal crystal structure with a 3m point group. The structure of bystrite could not be easily found due to the mineral exhibiting a strong pseudotranslation.
101 BYTONITE Feldspar Colorless, grey, white 6 - 6.5 2.72 - 2.74 Transparent to Translucent Uncommon South Africa, Mexico, Canada, UK, USA Calcium Sodium Aluminum Silicate Bytownite is a rarer form of feldspar, more commonly seen as a faceted gemstone then as a collectors mineral. It is usually translucent without a crystal form.
102 CACOXENITE Yellow to brownish yellow, reddish orange, golden yellow, deep orange, green 3-4 2.2-2.6 Translucent Common Bohemia, Czech Iron aluminium phosphate Cacoxenite is just something that forms inside of an Amethyst or other gemstone, displaying as rutile or golden tufts. However, there are the rare occasions when this becomes its own visually appealing gemstone.
103 CALCITE Calcite Colorless, blue, pink, orange, green, red, yellow, black, white 3 2.69 - 2.71 Translucent to Opaque Uncommon South Africa, Australia, Burma, India, Namibia, United States, Zambia, Germany Calcium Carbonate Calcite is a carbonate mineral and the most stable polymorph of calcium carbonate. The other polymorphs are the minerals aragonite and vaterite.
104 CALCITE W/ PYRITE See Calcite and Pyrite
105 CAMPYLITE White 3.5 - 4 Campylite is a variety of the lead arsenate mineral mimetite which received the name from the Greek 'kampylos'- bent, on account of the barrel-shaped bend of its crystals. It has also been used as an alternate name for pyromorphite.
106 CARNELIAN Chalcedony Pale orange, red 6½ - 7 2.58-2.64 Translucent to Opaque Uncommon France, Germany Silicon Dioxide Carnelian (also spelled cornelian) is a reddish-brown mineral which is commonly used as a semi-precious gemstone. Similar to carnelian is sard, which is generally harder and darker.
107 CARNOTITE Carnotite Yellow, golden yellow, green-yellow 2 4.7 Opaque Uncommon Kazakhstan, Madagascar, Mexico, Morocco, Namibia, Norway, Spain Hydrated Potassium Uranium Vanadate Carnotite is a relatively uncommon mineral, yet common enough to be an important ore of uranium and vanadium.
108 CARROLITE Linnaeite Bright silver color 4.5-5.5 4.5-4.8 Opaque Maryland,USA Sulfide of copper and cobalt Carrollite from Kambove, Katanga. This specimen is 4.3 cm wide, with a 1.2 cm carrollite crystal partly covered by pyrite, between calcite crystals.
109 CASSITERITE Cassiterite Black, yellow, brown, red, white 6 - 7 6.98 - 7.01 Translucent to Opaque Uncommon Bulgaria, Burma, Burundi, Ecuador, Finland, Greece, Greenland, Indonesia, Ireland, Norway Tin Oxide Cassiterite's name is derived from the term “Cassiterides” which was applied 'islands off the western coast of Europe' in pre-Roman times.
110 CATAPLEIITE Zirconium Blue, gray, yellowish-brown, reddish or colorless 5 - 6 2.8 Transparent to Translucent Uncommon USA, Madagascar, Norway, Canada Hydrated Sodium Zirconium Silicate Catapleiite is a rather rare zirconium mineral. It forms in alkaline rocks and rare rocks known as agpaites which are igneous rocks of unusual concentrations. They are characterized by high concentrations of alkali metals.
111 CAT'S EYE See Chrysoberyl
112 CAVANSITE Zeolite Green Blue to Ink Blue 3 - 4 2.25-2.33 Transparent to Translucent Uncommon India, USA Calcium Vanadium Silicate Hydroxide Cavansite is a beautiful and rare mineral. It was only discovered in the last 30 years and is found in only a few locallities. By far the best crystals come from the famous zeolite quarries in Poona, India. Crystal aggregates consist of spherical rosettes with jutting pointed crystals. The deep blue color of even the smallest cavansite crystals is truly amazing.
113 CELESTITE Baryte Group Colorless, milky white, pale blue, yellow 3 - 3.5 3.96 Transparent to Translucent Common England, Italy, USA Strontium Sulfate Celestite is used in nuclear industry in the manufacture of rubber, paint and electrical batteries in the refining of beet sugar and in the preparation of iridescent glass and porcelain.
114 CERUSSITE Carbonate Colorless, white, cream, light gray, light yellow, and brown 3 - 3.5 6.5 - 6.6 Transparent to translucent Common USA, Nambia, Morocco, England, New Mexica Lead Carbonate Cerussite is an interesting mineral, forming in an array of fascinating crystal formations and bizarre twinning habits. It is easily identifiable by its heavy weight, brilliant luster, and crystal habits. Cerussite also performs interesting reactions during blowpipe testing. Specimens may be fragile and should be handled with care.
115 CHABAZITE Zeolite Colorless, Red, Yellow, Pink, Green 3 - 5 2 - 2.2 Transparent to Translucent Common India, Iceland, USA, Nova Scotia, Germany, Switzerland Calcium Sodium Potassium Aluminium Silicate Hydroxide Chabazite, also known as acadialite, is one of the lesser known zeolites, but still a popular one to collect. Chabazite forms in the petrified bubbles of volcanic rocks that have had a slight amount metamorphism.
116 CHALCANTHITE Sulfate Bright blue, sky-blue, greenish-blue 2.5 2.17 - 2.28 Transparent, Translucent Rare Spain, Chile, England Hydrated Copper Sulfat Chalcanthite is natural, water-soluble copper sulphate. A secondary mineral that is formed in arid climates or in rapidly oxidizing copper deposits. It is usually of post-mining formation, forming on mine walls and by the action of acidic surface waters on copper veins.
117 CHALCEDONY Chalcedony White, grey, green, yellow, brown 6½ - 7 2.58 - 2.64 Translucent to Opaque Very Common Belize, Denmark, Eritrea, Eritrea, Greenland, India Silicon Oxide Traditionally defined as a fibrous cryptocrystalline variety of Quartz, more recently, it has been shown that much Chalcedony is a mixture of Quartz and Morganite (silica mineral). When it is concentrically banded it is called by the sub variety name Agate.
118 CHALCOPYRITE Chalcopyrite Brass yellow, bright golden 3.5 - 4 4.1 - 4.3 Opaque Very Common Zambia, USA, Zaire, Chile, Norway, Spain Copper Iron Sulfide One of the most important copper ores. Yielding the by-products gold and silver. About 80 percent of the world's copper is derived from the treatment of chalcopyrite ore. The minerals referred to as "Fool's Gold" because of its bright golden color.
119 CHALCOCITE Sulfide Blue black, gray, black, black gray, or steel gray 2.5 - 3 5.5 - 5.8 Opaque Uncommon England, St. Ives, Nambia, Kazakhstan Copper Sulfide Chalcocite is a coveted and iconic mineral among collectors. Specimens from classic and extinct localities, such as Cornwall, England and Bristol, Connecticut, will command extremely high prices, especially when in good crystals.
120 CHAROITE Silicates Lilac to violet, in various shades 2.54 - 2.78 1.55 - 1.59 Translucent to opaque Rare Russia Phosphorus, Calcium, and Sodium Charoite is a rare silicate mineral with a very complex chemical composition of phosphorus, calcium, and sodium. It's considered to be a relatively new gemstone,
121 CHIASTOLITE Silicate Reddish brown, olive green, white to gray 6.5 - 7 3.17 Translucent to Opaque Uncommon United States, South Africa, Australia, France Aluminum silicate A variety of Andalusite Crystals of Andalusite containg cross-shaped inclusions of carbon. Common in some metamorphic rocks.
122 CHLORITE Chlorite Colorless, light to dark green, gray-green, black 2 - 2½ 2.6 - 3.3 Translucent to Opaque Common India, Cuba, Japan, Morocco, Namibia, Mongolia, Mexico, New Zealand, Niger, Nigeria Chlorate The chlorites are a group of phyllosilicate minerals. Chlorites can be described by the following four endmembers based on their chemistry via substitution of the following four elements in the silicate lattice; Mg, Fe, Ni, and Mn.
123 CHROME DIOPSIDE Diopside Colorless, Yellowish To Yellow, Brown, Black, Blue, Green Or Red, Pink, Champagne-Tan, Cognac-Brown, Lilac 3.22 - 3.38 Transparent to Translucent Common China, Myanmar, India, Madagascar, South Africa, Tanzania, Russia, Finland, Italy, Austria Calcium magnesium silicate Diopside variety with strong emerald-green color
124 CHROMITE Spinel Black, brown, dark grey 4.5 - 4.8 Opaque Common Albania, Cyprus, Ethiopia, Gabon, Germany, Ghana, Libya, New Caledonia, Oman, Russia Iron Chromium Oxide Chromite is also used as a refractory material, because it has a high heat stability.The only ore of chromium is the mineral chromite.
125 CHROMIUM Metal White, grey, silver 9 7.19 Opaque Common Australia, China, Japan, Russia Chromium Chromium was regarded with great interest because of its high corrosion resistance and hardness. A major development was the discovery that steel could be made highly resistant to corrosion and discoloration by adding chromium and nickel to form stainless steel.
126 CHRYSANTHEMUM Aragonite It is an ornamental stone displaying chrysanthemum-like patterns in a contrasting matrix. Marketed specimens are often highlighted by selective painting of the matrix with a dye to over-emphasise the crystal pattern, which in the process obliterates some of it.
127 CHRYSOBERYL Chrysoberyl Golden-yellow, green-yellow, green, brown, red 3.70 - 3.78 Transparent to Translucent Uncommon Brazil, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Madagascar, Zimbabwe, Russia Beryllium Aluminate Chrysoberyl has been known since antiquity; the varieties alexandrite and chrysoberly cat's eye are especially valued.
128 CHRYSOCOLLA Chrysocolla Green, blue 2 - 4 2.00 - 2.40 Opaque Common Chile, Israel, Mexico, Peru, Russia, the United States (Nevada) and Zaire Hydrated Copper Silicate Chrysocolla is a sharply colored mineral. Its color can be among the brightest shades of blue and green, and is caused by its copper content. Chrysocolla is often coated by a drusy layer of glossy clear Quartz or intergrown together with the Quartz.
129 CHRYSOCOLLA W/ MALACHITE Please see Chrysocolla and Malachite
130 CHRYSOPRASE Chalcedony Green, apple-green 6½ - 7 2.58 - 2.64 Translucent to Opaque Uncommon Australia, Brazil, India, Kazakhstan, Madagascar, Russia, Zimbabwe, South Africa, Tanzania Silicon Dioxide Chrysoprase is considered the most valuable stone in the chalcedony group. The coloring agent is nickel.
131 CHRYSOTILE Serpentine Light green, dark green 2½-3 2.53 Translucent to Opaque Very Common Cuba, Ethiopia, Germany, Greenland, Morocco, New Zealand, Poland, Slovakia Hydrous magnesium silicate An industrial mineral widely used for thermal or electrical insulation.
132 CINNABAR Sulfide mineral Red, pink 2 - 2½ 8.176 Opaque Uncommon Chile, Georgia, Germany, Hungary, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, Peru, Slovakia Mercury sulfide Most important ore of mercury, as the native element is very rare. It was used in the past as the mineral pigment known as vermillion.
133 CIRNOID FOSSIL Please check fossil.
134 CITRINE Quartz Light yellow, orange 7 2.65 Transparent Uncommon Brazil, Madagascar, United States, Argentina, Myanmar, Namibia Silicon Dioxide The name is derived from its lemon-yellow color. Most commercial citrines are heated-treated amethysts. Almost all heat-treated citrines have a red tint. The natural citrines are mostly pale yellow.
136 CLINOCHLORE Chlorite Green, Red, Brown, Yellow 2 - 2.5 2.6 - 3 Transparent to Translucent Common USA, Austria, Italy, Spain, Scotland, Switzerland Magnesium Iron Aluminum Silicate Hydroxide Clinochlore is one of the more common members of the Chlorite Group of minerals. These minerals are all difficult to differentiate by ordinary means and often the general mineral name chlorite is given to specimens that lack distinguishing characterics.
137 COAL Carbon Black 3 1.1-1.4 Opaque Very Common Peru, Sweden, Spain, Turkey, Switzerland, Switzerland, Ukraine, USA Mainly Carbon (Mixed) A sedimentary rock of organic origin consisting predominantly of carbonised plant remains.
138 COBALT Metal Metallic grey 5.0 8.9 Translucent to Opaque Uncommon Russia Cobalt Cobalt is a bluish-gray, shiny, brittle metallic element. Its atomic number is 27 and its symbol is Co. It has magnetic properties like iron.
139 COBALT W/ CALCITE Please see Cobaltocalcite
140 COBALTITE Sulfosalt mineral Red-silver white, violet steel grey, or black 6.33 Translucent to Opaque Uncommon Botswana, Bulgaria, Hungary, North Korea, Poland, Saudi Arabia, Zimbabwe Cobalt arsenic sulfide Cobaltite although rare is still an important and valuable ore of cobalt, a strategically and industrially useful metal.
141 COBALTOCALCITE Calcite Colorless, white, grey, yellow, green 3 2.71 Translucent Uncommon Spain Cobalt Carbonate Cobaltocalcite refers to an intermediary mineral between Calcite and Sphaerocobaltite in a solid solution series. It is generally looked at as a cobalt-rich variety of Calcite, but can also be looked as a calcium-rich variety of Sphaerocobaltite.
142 COLE (See Colemanite) Please see Colemanite
143 COLEMANITE Inoborates Colorless, white, yellow, grey, colorless 2.423 Transparent to Translucent Uncommon Serbia, Turkey, USA, Greece, Kazakhstan Hydrated calcium borate Colemanite forms small but richly faceted crystals. The short prismatic habit is typical and good crystals with complicated faces are sought after by collectors.
144 COLORED GEMSTONES Colored gemstones are pieces of minerals, which, in cut and polished form, are used to make/decorate jewelry or other adornments.
145 COLUMBITE Oxide minerals Black, brown-black 6 5.04 Opaque Uncommon Equatorial Guinea, Finland, Ghana, Mozambique, Niger, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Uganda Iron manganese niobium tantalum oxides Columbite, also called niobite, is a black mineral group that is an ore of niobium. It has a submetallic luster and a high density and is a niobate of iron and manganese.
146 CONDOR AGATE Please see Agate
147 CONGLOMERATE STONE Sedimentary Light brown, grey yellow 2.5 1.7 - 2.3 Opaque Common Various Places Heterogeneous Mixture A conglomerate is a rock consisting of individual clasts within a finer-grained matrix that have become cemented together. Conglomerates are sedimentary rocks consisting of rounded fragments.
148 CONGLOMERATE JASPER Chalcedony Red, yellow, brown, green, blue 6½ - 7 2.58 - 2.91 Opaque Common Egypt, Australia, Brazil, India, Canada, Kazakhstan, Madagascar, Russia Silicon Dioxide The appeal of Jasper is its interesting color patterns and formations. Though it can be a solid color, it is most often mottled, spotted, ringed, or striped. Each Jasper has a unique color or pattern, lending this gemstone much variety. Jasper is an opaque form of Chalcedony.
149 COPAL Organic Amber Yellow, white, red, green, blue, brown, black 2 - 3 1.05 - 1.09 Transparent to Translucent Common Austria, Madagascar, New Zealand, UK Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen Copal is a solidified, volatile, rich plant resin, that can be colorless, yellow, brown or rarely reddish. It is a relatively recent fossil resin, which may have only tens or hundreds of years unlike Amber (millions years). Copal is frequently used as an imitation of Amber.
150 COPPER Copper Copper-red 2½ - 3 8.94 - 8.95 Opaque Common Costa Rica, Cuba, Denmark, Eritrea, Germany, Guatemala, Israel, Jamaica, Laos, Mongolia Copper Sulfide Pure copper is rather soft and malleable and a freshly-exposed surface has a pinkish or peachy color. Gold, caesium and copper are the only metallic elements with a natural color other than gray or white.
151 COPPER ORE Please see Copper
152 COPPER W/ ROCK Please see Copper
153 COPPER FIREBRICK Copper Copper-red 2½ - 3 8.94 - 8.95 Opaque Common Costa Rica, Cuba, Denmark, Eritrea, Germany, Guatemala, Israel, Jamaica, Laos, Mongolia Copper Sulfide Pure copper is rather soft and malleable and a freshly-exposed surface has a pinkish or peachy color. Gold, caesium and copper are the only metallic elements with a natural color other than gray or white.
155 CORAL Organic Amber Coral Red, pink, white, black, blue 3 - 4 2.60 - 2.70 Opaque Common Western Mediterranean countries, the Red sea, bay of Biscay, Canary Island, Japan Naturally Occuring Most corals have built reef and atolls with their branching trunks. Unworked coral is dull when polished it has vitreous luster. It is polished with fine-grained sandstone and is used for beads for necklaces/bracelets.
156 CORDIERITE SUNSTONE Silicate Grey, blue, blue-violet, green, yellow brown, colorless 7 - 7½ 2.6 - 2.66 Opaque Uncommon Myanmar, Brazil, India, Madagascar, Sri lank and United States Magnesium Aluminum Slicate The name is drived from its lemon-yellow color. Most commercial citrines are heate-treated amethysts. Almost all heat-treated citrines have a red tint. The natural citrines are mostly pale yellow.
158 CORN SHELL See Shell
159 CORNELIAN AGATE Please see Cornelian (Carnelian) and Agate
160 CORUNDUM Corundum Colorless, blue, red, pink, yellow, grey, golden-brown 9 3.98 - 4.1 Translucent to Opaque Common Bulgaria, Burma , Finland, India, Kyrgyzstan, Madagascar Aluminum Oxide Corundum is a crystalline form of Aluminum. It is one of the naturally clear transparent materials, but can have different colors when impurities are present.
161 COVELLITE Sulfide mineral Indigo blue, light blue, dark blue, black 1.5 - 2 4.6 - 4.8 Opaque Uncommon Mt Vesuvius, Somma-Vesuvius Complex, Naples Province, Campania, Italy Copper Sulfide Covellite is a rare copper sulfide mineral. This indigo blue mineral is ubiquitous in copper ores, it is found in limited abundance and is not an important ore of copper itself. It has a large amount of Graphite in it.
162 CREEDITE Monoclinic white, violet, colourless 4 2.71 Transparent Colorado, USA calcium aluminium sulfate fluoro hydroxide mineral Creedite is a rare hydroxylhalide mineral. Creedite usually forms from the oxidation of fluorite ore deposits.
164 CRYSTAL Quartz Colorless to Pink, white, grey, yellow, brown, golden brown 7 2.65 Transparent to Translucent Uncommon Brazil, Madagascar, India, Mozambique, Namibia, Sri Lank and United States. Silicon Dioxide A crystal or crystalline solid is a solid material whose constituent atoms, molecules, or ions are arranged in an orderly repeating pattern extending in all three spatial dimensions.
166 CUPRITE Cuprite Brown red, purple red, red, black 3½ - 4 6.14 Translucent to Opaque Common Belgium, Bolivia, Bulgaria, Cuba, Hungary, Jordan, Luxembourg, Spain, Sweden Oxide of Copper Cuprite has been a major ore of copper and is still mined in many places around the world. Of all the copper ores except for native copper, cuprite gives the greatest yield of copper per molecule
167 CUPRITE W/ CHRYSOCOLLA Please see Cuperite and Chrysocolla
168 CUPROSKLODOWSKITE uranium Grass green, Green yellow, Light green. 4 3.8 Transparent to Translucent Katanga province, Belgian Congo Cuprosklodowskite is a nesosilicate mineral, It is grass green to dark green in color, and its crystal habit is typically acicular, flat bladed crystals. It is a strongly radioactive mineral.
169 CYLINDRITE Triclinic Lead gray, Grayish black. 2.5 5.4 - 5.42 Opaque Common Poopo, in Oruro, Boliva Sulfosalt minerals Cylindrite Group from the Greek ?????d??s, a roll, in allusion to the typical cylindrical habit of the mineral.There is a relation between the cylindrical morphology and crystal structure. The latter is composite and characterizes in incommensurate modulations.
170 DANBURITE Tectosilicates Clear or white, shades of yellow and pink 7 - 7.5 3 Transparent to Translucent Uncommon USA, Mexico, Japan, Switzerland Calcium boron silicate Danburite is a commonly occurring mineral; large and facetable gemstone quality material is considered especially rare. Today, it is one of the lesser-known gemstones and is primarily classified as a collector's gem.
171 DATOLITE Datolite White, colorless, yellowish, reddish, gray, brown 5 - 5.5 2.8 - 3 Transparent to Translucent Common USA, Canada, Mexico, Germany, Norway Calcium Boron Silicate Hydroxide Datolite is a popular mineral among mineral collectors although it is somewhat obscure. It is often found in basalt vesicles with calcite and zeolites. In fact, it is often confused with certain zeolites because of its luster, color and associations.
172 DENDRITE It is design, adjective and descriptive term.
173 DENDRITE OPAL Please see Opal
174 DENDRITIC AGATE Please see Agate
175 DENDRITIC PYROLUSITE Please see Pyrolusite
176 DESMINE (Stilbite) Zeolite Colorless, white, pink 3½ - 4 2.18 - 2.2 Translucent to Opaque Common Bosnia & Herzegovina, Brazil, Bulgaria Hydrated Sodium Calcium Aluminum Silicate Desmine is synonym of Stilbite.
177 DIAMOND Diamond Colorless, yellow, brown, black, blue, green, red, pink, champagne-tan, lilac 10 3.5 - 3.53 Transparent Uncommon worldwide, especially in Angola, Australia, South Africa, Namibia, Brazil, Congo, Russia, Sierra Leone, Zimbabwe Carbon The name diamond refers to hardness. It has been recognised with various types of diamond with different characteristics. Due to the optical effects, the high hardness and its rarity, the diamondis considered the king of gemstones.
178 DIASPORE Diaspore White, green-grey, grey-brown, yellow, colorless 6.5 - 7 3.3 - 3.5 Translucent to Opaque Common Russia, Worldwide Hydroxyy Aluminum Oxide Diaspore is one of the three component minerals of the economically important aluminum ore Bauxite.
179 DICKITE Phyllosilicates Blue, Colorless, Gray, Yellow brown, White 1.5 - 2 2.6 Translucent to Opaque Common United States, Jamaica, Mexico Phyllosilicates Clay Dickite is chemically composed of 20.90% aluminium, 21.76% silicon, 1.56% hydrogen and 55.78% oxygen. It has the same composition as kaolinite, nacrite, and halloysite, but with a different crystal structure (polymorph). Dickite sometimes contains impurities such as titanium, iron, magnesium, calcium, sodium and potassium.
180 DIESEL Diesel or diesel fuel in general is any fuel used in diesel engines. The most common is a specific fractional distillate of petroleum fuel oil, but alternatives that are not derived from petroleum.
181 DINOSAUR EGG It’s a fossilized conversion of a Dinosaur Egg. Once it is hardened, it becomes a stone or mineral. Can be carved.
182 DIOPSIDE Diopside Light to dark green, blue, brown, snow white, grey, colorless 5½ - 6½ 3.22 - 3.38 Translucent to Opaque Very Common Myanmar, Finland, India, Madagascar, Austria, Sri Lanka, South Africa Calcium Magnesium Silicate Named (Greek-double appearance) because of its crystal shape. Diopside is an important rock forming mineral in several metamorphic and basic to ultra-basic igneous rocks, also found in meteorites.
183 DIOPTASE Dioptase Emerald green, blue-green 5 3.28 - 3.35 Transparent to Translucent Uncommon Chile, Kyrgyzstan, Namibia, Peru, Russia, United States, Zaire Hydroxyy Silicate of Copper Dioptase is popular with mineral collectors and it is occasionally cut into small emerald-like gems. Dioptase and chrysocolla are the only relatively common copper silicate minerals.
184 DIORITE Plutonic Black and white 2.8 - 3 2.72 - 2.99 Opaque Common Italy, Germany, Finaland, Romania, New Zealand, USA, Egypt Silicon Dioxide A group of plutonic rocks intermediate in composition between acidic and basic, characteristically composed of dark-colored amphibole, pyroxene, and sometimes a small amount of quartz; also, any rock in that group; the approximate intrusive equivalent of andesite.
185 DOLOMITE Dolomite Colorless, white, grey, red-white, brown-white, pink, colorless 3½ - 4 2.84 - 2.86 Translucent to Opaque Very Common Angola, Antarctica, Armenia, Bahamas, Greece, Mozambique Calcium Magnesium Carbonate Dolomite is used as an ornamental stone, a concrete aggregate, a source of magnesium oxide and in the Pigeon process for the production of magnesium.
186 DOMEYKITE Arsenide mineral Tin-white to steel-gray 3 - 3.5 7.2 - 8.1 Opaque Common USA, Canada Copper Arsenide Domeykite is a semi-metal alloy of copper and arsenic. It is found at several copper mines in Chile and is named for a nineteenth century Chilean mineralogist named Ignacio Domeyko. Alloys are usually placed in the Elements Class.
187 DRAGON STONE Another name for Serpentine. See Serpentine.
188 DRAVITE Tourmaline Pale to dark brown, dark yellow 7 3.03 - 3.18 Translucent to Opaque Common Finland, India, Kenya, Nepal, North Korea, Norway, Slovenia, Spain, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Uzbekistan, Zambia Crystal Boron Silicate Dravite is a brown variety of tourmaline. It is an ideal stone for self-healing, aids in finding emotional strength and self-acceptance. Dravite inspires courage and persistence.
189 DRUZY SPECTROPYRITE Please see pyrite.
191 DUMORTIERITE Dumortierite Blue, brown, violet, green blue, pink 7 3.3 - 3.4 Opaque Common USA, France Borosilicate of Aluminum and iron oxide Dumortierite is a fibrous variably colored aluminum boro-silicate mineral. It is used in the manufacture of high grade porcelain. It is sometimes mistaken for Sodalite and has been used as imitation lapis lazuli.
192 ECLOGITE Plutonic Red, pale green 5 to 6 3.29 - 3.39 Opaque Common Greenland, Scotland, Italy, USA, Australia Plagioclase feldspar, pyroxene, olivine, magnetite, and ilmenite Eclogite is a dense, green plutonic rock composed of coarse grains of green, sodium-rich pyroxene and pale pink, magnesium rich garnet; Kyanite and rutile are also common. Chemically, an eclogite is equivalent to basalt.
193 ECLOGITE W/ GLAUCOPHANE Please see Ecolgite and Glaucophane
194 ELBAITE Tourmaline Green, red to pink, blue, orange, yellow, colorless, multicolored 7.5 2.9 - 3.2 Transparent to Opaque Common Afghanistan, Austria, Canada, Brazil, Czech Republic, Italy, Madagascar Sodium Lithium Aluminum Boro-Silicate Hydroxyide Elbaite is a desirable member of the tourmaline group because of the variety and depth of its colours and quality of the crystals.
195 ELDARITE Fossil/Volcanic Rock Dark Green to Black 6.5 - 7 2.56 Opaque Common China, Mexico, Africa Silicon Dioxide Eldarite is certainly an unusual and handsome lapidary material. It is not mined by blasting, so it has few cracks or stresses that can affect specimens as they are worked.
196 ELECTRICITY Electricity is a broad term encompassing the family of phenomenon arising from interaction between charged particles. Of the four fundamental forces of nature, the electromagnetic force is the most influential in our everyday lives.
197 ELMWOOD FLUORITE Please see Fluorite. Fluorite mined from Elmwood mines.
198 EMERALD Beryl Green shades, colorless 7 1/2 - 8 2.67 - 2.78 Transparent to Opaque Uncommon Afghanistan, Australia, Austria, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, China, Egypt, Ethiopia Beryllium Aluminum Silicate The name emerald derives from Greek 'smaragdos'. It means ' green stone'. The physical properties, especially the density, refractive index and refraction
199 ENARGITE sulfides Steel gray, Blackish gray, Violet black. 3 4.4 - 4.5 Opaque Common Butte, Montana, USA copper arsenic sulfosalt Enargite is a sulfosalt mineral that is an import ore of copper. Crystals are sometimes coated with a thin layer of Pyrite crystals, giving it a yellow appearance. Enargite is dimorphous with the mineral Luzonite, which forms in tetragonal crystals.
200 EPHESITE Mica Brownish pink, Pearl gray, Pale green 3.5-4.5 2.98 Opaque Uncommon Ephesus, Turkey phyllosilicate Ephesite found in its natural state is translucent and pink in color. It has a vitreous luster and pearly on the cleavages.
201 EPIDOTE Epidote Green, black-brown 6 - 7 3.3 - 3.5 Translucent to Opaque Common Brazil, Kenya, Mexico, Mozambique, Norway Hydroxy Silicate of calcium, aluminum and iron Epidote is a calcium aluminum iron sorosilicate mineral. Epidote is an abundant rock-forming mineral, but one of secondary origin. It occurs in marble and schistose rocks of metamorphic origin.
202 EPIDOTE IN CRYSTAL Please see Epidote and Crystal
203 EPIDOTE W/ JASPER Please see Epidote and Jasper
204 EPISTILBITE Zeolite White, Pink and Red 4 - 4.5 2.2 - 2.3 Transparent to Translucent Uncommon India, Iceland, Italy, Hawaii Calcium Sodium Aluminium Silicate Hydroxide Epistilbite is a rare member of the zeolite group. It has a very similar chemical makeup to Stilbite, and can be difficult to distinguish from Stilbite. Epistilbite is not dimorphous with Stilbite,
205 ERYTHRITE Vivianite Red, lavender-blue 1.5 - 2.5 3.07 Transparent to Translucent Uncommon Germany, France, USA, Iran, Morocco. Hydrous Cobalt Arsenate An arsenate mineral. Nickel substitutes iso-morphically for cobalt; admixtures of zinc, magnesium, and iron are also observed. It is encountered primarily in the form of crusts, concretions, and earthy aggregates.
207 EUCLASE Euclase Colorless, sea-green, light blue, dark blue 3.1 Transparent Uncommon Brazil, Russia, Zimbabwe, Tanzania and Zaire Hydroxyy silicate of beryllium and alluminum Euclase crystals are noted for their blue color, ranging from very pale to dark blue. The mineral may also be colorless, white, or light green. Euclase is difficult to cut and polish because of its perfect cleavage.
208 EUDIALYTE Silicate Pink-red, yellow-brown, Violet 5.0 - 6 2.74 - 3.10 Opaque Uncommon Julianehaab district of Greenland Sodium Calcium Cerium Iron Manganese Zirconium Silicate Hydroxyide Chloride Eudialyte is a somewhat rare, red silicate mineral, which forms in alkaline igneous rocks, such as nepheline syenites. Its name alludes to its ready solubility in acid.
209 EUXENITE Oxide minerals Black, green, brown 5½ - 6½ 5.3 - 5.9 Opaque Uncommon Norway, Russia, Sweden, Brazil, US Yttrium Calcium Erbium Lanthanum Cerium Uranium Thorium Niobium Tantalum Titanium Oxide Euxenite is used as an ore of the rare earth elements it contains. Rare large crystals have also been used in jewelry
210 FACTORY / INDUSTRY The aggregate of manufacturing or technically productive enterprises in a particular field, often named after its principal product, in this case gemstones and minerals
212 FELDSPAR Feldspar White, grey, blue, green, red 6 - 6.5 2.6 - 2.65 Transparent to Opaque Common US, Brazil, India, Kenya, Madagascar, Namibia, Russia Potassium Aluminum Silicate Feldspar is a common raw material in the production of ceramics and geopolymers. Feldspars are used for thermo luminescence dating and optical dating in earth sciences and archaeology
213 FERBERITE Wolframite Black, dark brown, metallic grey 4 - 4½ 7.58 Opaque Uncommon Greenland, Hungary, India, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, Peru, Romania, Rwanda, Thailand Iron Manganese Tungstates Ferberite tends to be black colored, with a black streak, is opaque with a nearly submetallic luster, is denser, has crystals with a different elongation and can be weakly magnetic.
214 FERROMETEORITE (IRON METEORITE) Silicate minerals Asteroids Metallic grey, light and dark brown, 4.5 3.21-3.40 Opaque Uncommon Worldwide Iron Oxide A meteorite is a natural object originating in outer space that survives an impact with the Earth's surface. While in space it is called a meteoroid.
215 FILIGREE Filigree is a delicate kind of jewellery metalwork, usually of gold and silver, made with tiny beads or twisted threads, or both in combination, soldered together or to the surface of an object of the same metal and arranged in artistic motifs.
216 FIRE OPAL Please see Opal
217 FLINTSTONE Sedimentary Dark grey, black, green, white, brown 7 2.9 - 5.9 Opaque Very Common Worldwide Silicon Dioxide Technically a rock, not a mineral, being composed largely of tiny grains of quartz or chalcedony. It is usually rather pure, with few other minerals involved, often dark.
218 FLUORAPORHYLLITE Silicates Colorless, white, gray, green, brown. Rarely pink, purple, red, or orange 4.5 - 5 2.3 - 2.4 Transparent to translucent Common India, USA, South Africa Hydrous calcium potassium fluoro-hydroxyl-silicate Fluorapophyllite can be a beautiful mineral, forming in lustrous, transparent crystals that are well-formed and occasionally very large. Though it is found worldwide in volcanic zeolite environments,
219 FLUORESCENT STONE Fluorite Varies 4 - 7 Varies Translucent to Opaque Common Worldwide Calcium Fluoride The minerals in some types of stone have properties which cause them, under certain conditions, to glow or fluoresce. This property can sometimes be beneficial. When searching for the minerals using ultraviolet light these stones will stand out from the other rocks.
220 FLUORITE Fluorite Purple, blue, green, yellow, colorless, brown, pink, black, red-orange 4 3.00 - 3.25 Transparent to Translucent Very Common Germany, Argentina, Burma, England, France, Namibia Calcium Fluoride Fluorite is a very popular mineral, and it naturally occurs in all colors of the spectrum. It is one of the most varied colored minerals in the mineral kingdom, and the colors may be very intense and almost electric. Blue John is also a very popular form of Fluorite.
221 FLUORITE W/ CHALCOPYRITE Please see Fluorite and Chalcopyrite
222 FLUORITE W/ PYRITE Please see Fluorite and Pyrite
223 FORSTERITE Olivine Colorless, Green, Yellow, Yellow green, White 6-7 3.21 - 3.33 Transparent Common Somma, Vesuvius, Italy Magnesium silicate Forsterite is associated with igneous and metamorphic rocks and has also been found in meteorites.
224 FOSSIL Organic Amber Black, brown, grey, white Varies Varies Opaque Uncommon USA, Antarctica, Australia, Libya, Saudi Arabia Varies Fossils are the preserved remains or traces of animals, plants, and other organisms from the remote past.
225 FOSSIL CORAL Please see coral
226 FUCHSITE Fuchsite White, grey, silver 2 – 2.25 2.76 - 3 Opaque Uncommon India (Nellore) Potassium Aluminum Silicate Hydroxyide Fluoride Fuchsite is the most common mica, found in granites, pegmatite’s, gneisses, and schist’s, and as a contact metamorphic rock or as a secondary mineral resulting from the alteration of topaz, feldspar, kyanite, etc.
227 FUCHSITE W/ KYANITE Please see Fuchsite and Kyanite
228 GADOLINITE Nesosilicate Brown, Green, Green black, Light green, Black 6.5 - 7 4 - 4.5 Transparent to Opaque Rare Sweden, Norwary, Austria, China Yttrium Gadolinite-(Y) is a somewhat rare mineral, but does come in some attractive crystals that collectors desire. It forms prismatic, nearly diamond-shaped cross-sectioned crystals, usually with a green color and a nice luster.
229 GAGATE Fossil Jet Black, metallic dark brown. 2.5 – 4 1.30 – 1.35 Opaque Uncommon Egypt, Rome, Greece, Serbia Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen Gagate is a carbon fossil, compact and very light. It is a lustrous black stone. Another name for Gagate is Black Amber or Jet.
231 GALENA Galena Lead-grey 7.57 Opaque Common Angola, Belgium, Bolivia, Morocco, Denmark Lead sulfide One of the earliest uses of galena was as kohl, which in Ancient Egypt, was applied around the eyes to reduce the glare of the desert sun and to repel flies, which were a potential source of disease.
232 GALLITE Igenous Rock Grey 3 - 3.5 4.1 - 4.3 Opaque Common Bulgaria, Nambia, Cuba Copper iron sulfide A tetragonal-scalenohedral gray mineral containing copper, gallium, and sulfur.
233 GARCIT AGATE Please see Agate
234 GARNET Garnet Grossular Wine red, red-brown, yellow, green, black 6½ - 7½ 4.2 Transparent to Translucent Common India, USA, Sri Lanka, Madagascar and Africa Calcium Aluminum Silicate Garnet sand is a good abrasive and a common replacement for silica sand in sand blasting. Mixed with very high pressure water, garnet is used to cut steel and other materials in water jets. Pure crystals of garnet are used as gemstones.
235 GARNET IN QUARTZ Please see Garnet and Quartz
236 GARNIERITE Serpentine Apple green, light brown 2½-3 2.3 Translucent Common Brazil, Dominican Republic, Japan, New Caledonia, Turkey Hydrous Nickel Magnesium Silicate Garnierite is a general name for a green nickel ore which is found in pockets and veins within weathered and serpentinized ultramafic rocks.
237 GARTRELLITE Tsumcorite Greenish yellow 4.5 5.4 Transparent Western Australia, Australia
238 GETCHELLITE Sulfide mineral Blood red, dark red, purple red 1½ - 2 3.92 Translucent to Opaque Uncommon Kyrgyzstan, Russia, USA, Japan, Azerbaijan Arsenic And Antimony Sulfides Getchellite is a rare sulfide of arsenic and antimony.
239 GLASS Natural Glass Dark Red, Dark Red, Sometimes With A Purple To Green Iridescent Tarnish 5 - 6½ 2.6 Transparent Very Common Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Usa, Japan, Azerbaijan Fused Silicon Dioxide Glass is an amorphous (non-crystalline) solid material that exhibits a glass transition, which is the reversible transition in amorphous materials (or in amorphous regions within semi crystalline materials) from a hard and relatively brittle state into a molten or rubber-like state.
240 GLAUCOPHANE Amphibolite Gray, blue-black, lavender blue 6 - 6.5 3 - 3.2 Opaque Very Common Common Worldwide Sodium Magnesium Iron Aluminum Silicate Hydroxyide Glaucophane is a common amphibole mineral, a sodium, magnesium, and aluminum silicate that occur only in crystalline schist’s formed from sodium-rich rocks by low-grade metamorphism characteristic of subduction zones.
241 GOETHITE Iron oxide Yellow, red to dark brown 5 - 5.5 3.3 - 4.3 Translucent to Opaque Uncommon USA, Czech Republic, Germany, South America, Italy, UK Hydrated Iron Oxide Goethite named after the German polymath Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749–1832), is an iron bearing oxide mineral found in soil and other low-temperature environments.
243 GOLD Copper Metallic golden, Brass yellow, bright golden 2½ - 3 15 - 19.3 Opaque Common South Africa, Brazil, Russia, USA Gold Gold is a chemical element. It is a highly sought-after precious metal in jewelry, in sculpture, and for ornamentation since the beginning of recorded history.
244 GOLDSTONE Reddish brown 5.5 2.5 - 2.8 Opaque Very Common Worldwide Copper Oxide Goldstone is man made. Some speculate it was discovered by accident when alchemists were trying to create man made gold. Goldstone is created of brown glass with copper oxide added.
245 GOOSECREEKITE Zeolite White, Pink and Red 4.5 2.21 Transparent Uncommon India, USA Calcium Aluminium Silicate Hydroxide Goosecreekite is one of the rarer zeolites and one of the most usually named minerals in the world. It forms irregular aggregates and prismatic crystals that are found in the vesicles or bubbles of volcanic rock as are most other zeolites.
246 GOSHENITE Colorless, White 7.5 - 8 2.8 Transparent to translucent Common Brazil, China, Canada, Mexico, Russia, Northern Europe, East Africa, South Africa, Asia and Colombia goshenite The name for this gemstone derives from Goshen Massachusetts, which was one of the first areas to discover the gem. Today it can be found in several countries, but most are mined in Brazil, America and Canada.
247 GRANDIDIERITE Nesosilicate Bluish green 2.96 Transparent, Translucent uncommon Grandidierite is an extremely rare mineral and gem that was first discovered in 1902 in southern Madagascar. The mineral was named in honor of French explorer Alfred Grandidier (1836–1912) who studied the natural history of Madagascar.
248 GRANITE Feldspar Pink, grey, varies 5-7 2.65 - 2.75 Opaque Very Common Common Worldwide Igneous Rock Granite is a common and widely occurring type of intrusive, felsic, igneous rock. Granite has a medium to coarse texture, occasionally with some individual crystals larger than the groundmass forming a rock known as porphyry.
249 GREEN BERYL Please see Beryl
250 GREEN QUARTZ Please see Quartz
251 GREENALITE Kaolinite-Serpentine Bright green, pale green, brown 2.5 2.85-3.15 Opaque Common Australia, Canada, China, Germany, USA, Worldwide Hydroxyy Silicate of Magnesium with Clay Greenalite was first described in 1903 for an occurrence in the Mesabi Range near Biwabik, St. Louis County, Minnesota and named for its green color. It occurs as a primary phase in banded iron formations.
252 GREENSTONE chlorite, Greenstone is a common generic term for valuable, green-hued minerals and metamorphosed igneous rocks and stones which early cultures used in the fashioning of hardstone carvings such as jewelry, statuettes, ritual tools, and various other artifacts.
253 GREEN SWISS OPAL Please see Opal
254 GROSSULAR Garnet Grossular/ Intermediate varieties Colorless, green, yellow, brown 6½ - 7 3.57 - 3.73 Translucent to Opaque Common Canada, Kenya, Mali, Pakistan, Russia, Sri Lanka, South Africa, Tanzania, United States (Vermont) Calcium Aluminum Silicate Grossular (also known as grossularite), like other garnets, forms rounded crystals with 12 rhombic or 24 trapezoidal faces or combinations of these and some other forms. This crystal habit is classic for the garnet minerals.
255 GROSSULAR GARNET See Grossular and Garnet
256 GUNMETAL Bronze Metal Dark grey 4 - 4.5 8.7 Opaque Uncommon USA Copper, Tin, Lead Zinc Gunmetal was originally used chiefly for making guns, and was eventually superseded by steel. Gunmetal casts and machines well and is resistant to corrosion from steam and salt water and is used to make steam and hydraulic castings, valves, and gears, and also statues and various small objects.
257 GYPSUM Gypsum White, yellow, pink, blue, colorless 2 2.20 - 2.40 Transparent to Opaque Very Common Algeria, Angola, USA, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Zimbabwe Hydrated Calcium Sulphate Gypsum is very sensitive to heat. It is rock-forming; compared to alabaster.
258 GYROLITE Phyllosilicates White to Green 3 - 4 2.3 Transparent to Translucent Uncommon India, Ireland, USA Sodium Calcium Aluminiumsilicate Hydroxide Gyrolite often forms nodular aggregates. These aggregates can appear glassy, dull or even fiberous. Unlike other similar looking minerals (such as prehnite or smithsonite), gyrolite usually forms individual nodules as opposed to botryoidal or crustal growths. The aggregate nodules can often accompany many fine and rare minerals such as apophyllite, okenite and many of the zeolites. Much gyrolite forms inside of volcanic bubbles called vesicles and can only add another element to the surreal "landscape" inside.
259 HACKMANITE Sodalite Pale to deep violet, grayish or greenish-white 5.5 - 6 1.48 Translucent to Opaque Uncommon Canada, Greenland Burma, Russia, USA Sodium Aluminum Silicate Chloride Hackmanite is an important variety of sodalite exhibiting tenebrescence. When hackmanite from Quebec or Greenland is freshly quarried, it is generally pale to deep violet but the colour fades quickly to greyish or greenish whites a violet to pink-red colour in sunlight.
260 HALITE Halide Colorless, white, yellow, red, purple, blue 2.168 Transparent to Translucent Very Common Azerbaijan, Belarus, Colombia, Denmark, Jordan, Kenya, Netherlands Sodium Chloride Halite is commonly known as rock salt. Halite forms isometric crystals. The mineral is typically colorless to yellow, but may also be light blue, dark blue, and pink depending on the amount and type of impurities.
261 HAUYNE Sodalite Blue, white, grey, yellow, green, pink 5 - 6 2.4 - 2.9 Translucent to Opaque Common Canary Islands, Germany, USA, Italy Sodium Calcium Aluminum Silicate Sulfur Sulfate Chloride Hauyne, haüyne or hauynite was first described in 1807 from samples discovered in Vesuvian lavas in Monte Somma, Italy, and was named in 1807 by Brunn-Neergard for the French crystallographer René Just Haüy (1743–1822).
262 HEDENBERGITE Metamorphic Rock Green to dark green, brownish-green, brown, gray, black 5 - 6 3.3 - 3.6 Opaque Common Italy, Sweden, Russia, Australia Calcium magnesium silicate Hedenbergite forms a series with Diopside, the magnesium equivalent of Hedenbergite, and may be partially replaced by it. Diopside and Hedenbergite can even occur together in a single crystal, with a core of Hedenbergite and outer zone of Diopside. Hedenbergite is often confused and misidentified as both Diopside and Augite.
263 HELIODOR Beryl Gold-yellow, yellow-green, yellow, pink, colorless 7.5 - 8 2.63 - 2.92 Transparent Common Namibia, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Russia, Ukraine Beryllium Aluminum Sillicate Heliodor is a golden yellow gem variety of Beryl.
264 HEMATITE Hematite Black, black-grey, brown-red 5½ - 6½ 5.12 - 5.28 Opaque Very Common England, Mexico, Brazil, Australia, United States and Canada Iron Oxide Hematite is a mineral, colored black to steel or silver-gray, brown to reddish brown, or red. It is mined as the main ore of iron. While the forms of hematite vary, they all have a rust-red streak. Hematite is harder than pure iron, but much more brittle.
265 HEMIMORPHITE Zinc and Lead White, Blue, Green 4.5-5 3.5 Translucent to Opaque Uncommon Siberia, Austrilia, USA, Germany Zinc Silicate Hemimorphite, is a sorosilicate mineral which has been historically mined from the upper parts of zinc and lead ores. It was often assumed to be the same mineral as smithsonite, and both were classed under the same name of calamine.
266 HETEROSITE Orthorhombic Purple black, also deep rose to reddish purple 4 - 4.5 3.4 Opaque Uncommon USA, Germany, Finland Iron Phosphate Heterosite is a series between Heterosite and Purpurite. The species of this series are secondary minerals formed by oxidation of Triphylite and Lithiophilite through the intermediate stage of Ferrisicklerite and Sicklerite.
267 HETIAN JADE Jade form Hetian in Xinjiang, China. See Jade.
268 HEULANDITE Zeolite Colorless, pink, red, grey, yellow, green, white 3 - 3½ 2.1 - 2.2 Transparent Common Brazil, China, Denmark, Guam, India, Kazakhstan, Morocco, Nicaragua Hydrated Calcium Sodium Aluminum Silicate Heulandite is a white, grey, red, or brown zeolite mineral that consists essentially of hydrated calcium Aluminum silicate in the form of elongated tabular crystals.
269 HIDDENITE Spodumene Yellow-green, emerald-green 6½ - 7 3.15 - 3.21 Transparent Uncommon Burma, Brazil, Madagascar and United States Lithium Aluminum Silicate Hiddenite is a pale-to-emerald green variety of spodumene that is sometimes used as a gemstone.
270 HILUTITE Garnet Zircon Goethite Quartz Green, light brown 6 - 7 2.65 - 4.3 Translucent to Opaque Common Germany, Lithuania , England, Denmark, France, Brazil or Russia Hilutite was first showcased to the world in April 2009. It is an amazing combination of the minerals Garnet, Zircon, Goethite and Quartz.
272 HOLLANDITE Hollandite Grey-Black, Silver-Grey 4 - 6 5.05 Translucent to Opaque Common India, Australia, Austria, France, Germany, Slovakia, USA Barium manganese oxide hydrate A monoclinic-prismatic white mineral containing aluminum, barium, iron, lead, manganese, oxygen, silicon, and sodium.
273 HORNBLENDE RUBY Please see Ruby
274 HORNSTONE See Banded Hornstone
275 HOWLITE Silicate White with gray to black streaks 3.5 2.5 - 2.6 Translucent to Opaque Common Nova Scotia, Canada, USA, Calcium Boro-silicate Hydroxide Howlite, which is named for its discoverer Henry How (a Nova Scotia geologist), is one of those minerals that is more famous for imitating another mineral. In this case the other mineral is turquoise, a phosphate gemstone. Although howlite is always white or gray, it can accept dyes fairly easily and be dyed a turquoise blue.
276 HUBNERITE Oxide Yellowish brown to reddish brown, blackish brown, black; Deep red internal reflections in reflected light 4 - 4.5 7.12 - 7.18 Transparent to Translucent Common China, Bolivia, USA Manganese Tungstate Huebnerite is the manganese-rich end member of the Wolframite series. It is not always distinguished individually and is sometimes just classified as Wolframite.
277 IDOCRASE Idocrase Brown, yellow, brown-black, light green, blue-green white, red, violet 6.5 3.32 - 3.43 Transparent to Translucent Uncommon Italy Complex Calcium Aluminum Silicate Vesuvianite, also known as Idocrase, is a green, brown, yellow, or blue silicate mineral. Vesuvianite occurs as tetragonal crystals in skarn deposits and limestones that have been subjected to contact metamorphism.
278 IKRANITA Please check granite.
279 ILMENITE Ilmenite Black, dark grayish-black, brownish-black, dark reddish-brown 5-6 4.68 - 4.76 Opaque Common Southern Urals, Urals Region, Russia Iron titanium oxide Ilmenite is one of the most significant ores of the metal titanium. It is mined as an important industrial mineral in several deposits throughout the world. Many of those deposits are in heavy placer sands. Ilmenite is very similar in structure to Hematite,
280 IMPERIAL TOPAZ Topaz Golden yellow 8 3.49 - 3.57 Transparent Uncommon Germany, Norway, Pakistan, Italy, Sweden, Japan, Brazil Hydroxyy silicate of Aluminum with fluorite and iron Imperial topaz is yellow, pink(rare, if natural) to slightly pinkish-orange to reddish-orange. Some imperial topaz can fade on exposure to sunlight for an extended period of time.
281 INDICOLITE - TOURMALINE Tourmaline Green, red-pink, blue, orange, yellow, colorless 7 2.98 - 3.2 Transparent Uncommon Brazil, Austria, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Mexico Sodium Lithium Aluminum Boro-Silicate Hydroxyide Indicolite is the blue color variety of the tourmaline mineral elbaite. Its typical color is a more deeper almost neon blue than other blue gems such as aquamarine and blue topaz.
282 INESITE Silicates Rose-red, pink, orange-pink, orange-red-brown 5.5 - 6 3.03 - 3.04 Translucent Common England, Austrialia, China, Germany, Japan, USA Hydrous calcium manganese silicate Inesite is an uncommon but appealing mineral that forms in attractive pink colors. Its crystals often have a very characteristic, chisel-shaped termination on one of the crystal angles. Inesite is likely named for the Greek term ines,
283 IOLITE Iolite Grey, blue, blue-violet, green, yellow-brown, colorless 7 - 7½ 2.6 - 2.66 Transparent to Translucent Common Brazil, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, India, Madagascar, Spain Complex Silicate of magnesium, aluminum and iron Iolite is also know as cordierite. Catalytic converters are commonly made from ceramics containing a large proportion of cordierite.
284 IRON METEORITE Iron Metallic silver-gray, red-brown 7.3 - 7.87 Opaque Very Common Chile, France, Hungary, India, Niger, Norway, Oman, Poland, Tajikistan Iron Iron is a chemical element with the symbol Fe and atomic number 26. It is a metal in the first transition series. It is the most common element (by mass) forming the planet Earth as a whole, forming much of Earth's outer and inner core. It is the fourth most common element in the Earth's crust.
285 JADE Jade Gree, lavender, red, yellow, white, black 6½ - 7 3.30 - 3.38 Translucent to Opaque Uncommon Canada, China, USA, Burma, Vietnam Sodium Aluminum Silicate Jade is an ornamental stone. The term jade is applied to two different metamorphic rocks that are made up of different silicate minerals: Nephrite and Jadeite.
286 JADEITE Jade Apple-green, green-white, purple-blue, blue-green 6½ to 7 3.25 - 3.35 Translucent to Opaque Uncommon Burma (Myanmar) Sodium Aluminum Silicate Jadeite is a pyroxene mineral with composition NaAlSi2O6. Jadeite forms solid solutions with other pyroxene endmembers such as augite and diopside, aegirine, and kosmochlor.
287 JASPER Chalcedony Red, yellow, brown, green, blue 6½ - 7 2.58 - 2.91 Opaque Common Egypt, Australia, Brazil, India, Canada, Kazakhstan, Madagascar, Russia Silicon Dioxide The appeal of Jasper is its interesting color patterns and formations. Though it can be a solid color, it is most often mottled, spotted, ringed, or striped. Each Jasper has a unique color or pattern, lending this gemstone much variety. Jasper is an opaque form of Chalcedony.
288 JASPER WITH CHRYSOCOLLA Please see Jasper and Chrysocolla
289 JIMTHOMPSONITE Colorless, Pink brown 2-2.5 3.03 Transparent Very Common Carlton Quarry (Carleton Talc Mine), Chester, Windsor Co., Vermont, USA Magnesium iron silicate Jimthompsonite is an inosilicate with a triple chain silicate backbone. Pyroxenes have a single chain, amphiboles have a double chain, and jimthompsonite and a few other minerals have even wider chains.
290 JULGOLDITE Pumpellyite Green Black 4.5 3.6 Translucent to Opaque Common India, Sweden, Germany, Italy Calcium Iron Aluminosilicate Julgoldite is a member of the pumpellyite mineral series, a series of minerals characterized by the chemical bonding of silica tetrahedra with alkali and transition metal cations. It has been recognized for its importance in low grade metamorphism.
292 KASOLITE Radioactive Mineral Green, gray green, yellow, yellow brown, red-orange 4 - 5 5.83 - 6.5 Translucent to Opaque Uncommon Egypt, France, Gabon, Germany, Hungary, India, Italy Hydrated Lead Uranyl Silicate Kasolite is a natural radioactive mineral. Kasolite derives it's name from its main locality, Kasolo, Zaire, Kasolite can be found in world wide in uranium-bearing ores. Kasolite forms sheaves of divergent crystals, rivet washers, sea urchins and radiate aggregates fibrous.
293 KIMBERLITE Peridotite Blue, yellow, black, stone grey 10 2.5-3.1 Opaque Uncommon USA, South Africa, Silicon Carbide (Chromium) Kimberlite is a type of potassic volcanic rock best known for sometimes containing diamonds. Kimberlite occurs in the Earth's crust in vertical structures known as Kimberlite pipes. Kimberlite pipes are the most important source of mined diamonds today.
294 KORNERUPINE Borosilicates Green, colorless, white, pink, yellow or brown 6 - 7 3.3 Transparent to Translucent Uncommon Greenland, Sri Lanka, Madagascar, Tanzania Magnesium aluminum borate silicate Kornerupine is a rare transparent to translucent gemstone named in honour of Andreas Nikolaus Kornerup a Danish naturalist, artist and explorer.
295 KOTOITE Dolomite Colorless, White 6.5 3.04 Opaque Uncommon North Korea Calcium Magnesium Carbonate Kotoite, a borate anhydrous magnesium owes its name to Bundjiro Koto (1856 - 1935), a geologist Japanese professor at the ' University of Tokyo. It was first artificially synthesized before being found in nature.
296 KROHNKITE Roselite Blue, dark sky blue, green-blue, yellow-green 2½ – 3.0 2.06 - 2.9 Transparent to Translucent Uncommon Chile Hydrated Sodium Copper Sulfate Kröhnkite is a rare copper sulfate mineral named after B. Kröhnke who first researched it.
298 KUNZITE Spodumene Pink-violet, light violet 6½ - 7 3.15 - 3.21 Transparent Uncommon Brazil, Afghanistan, Burma, Madagascar, Pakistan Lithium Aluminum Silicate Kunzite is a pink to lilac colored gemstone, a variety of spodumene with the color coming from minor to trace amounts of manganese. Some (but not all) kunzite used for gemstones has been heated to enhance its color. It is also frequently irradiated to enhance the color.
299 KYANITE Kyanite Blue, blue-green, brown, colorless Along axes 4-4½ across 6-7 3.53 - 3.70 Transparent to Translucent Common Burma, Brazil, Kenya, Austria, Switzerland, Zimbabwe Aluminum Silicate Kyanite is used primarily in refractory and ceramic products, including porcelain plumbing fixtures and dishware. It is also one of the index minerals that are used to estimate the temperature, depth, and pressure at which a rock undergoes metamorphism.
300 LABRADORITE Feldspar Plagioclase Dark-grey, grey-black, brown 6 - 6 1/2 2.65-2.75 Opaque Very Common Canada, Australia, Madagascar, Mexico, Russia and United Stated Sodium calcium aluminum silicates Labradorite is a plagioclase feldspar. Used for bead necklaces, brooches ring, and ornamental objects. Colorless and yellowish-brown transparent labradorites are cut with facets. Labradorite is a form of Spectrolite.
301 LACE AGATE Chalcedony White, grey, green, yellow, brown 6½ - 7 2.58 - 2.64 Opaque Very Common Angola, Armenia, Bulgaria, India, Jamaica, Panama, Papua New Guinea Silicon Dioxide Agate is a microcrystalline variety of quartz, chiefly chalcedony, characterized by its fineness of grain and brightness of color. Although agates may be found in various kinds of rock.
302 LANGITE Monoclinic Blue, greenish-blue 2.5-3 3.5 Translucent Very Common Fowey Consols, Tywardreath, Par Area, St Austell District, Cornwall, England, UK Hydrated copper sulfate Langite is a rare hydrated copper sulfate mineral, with hydroxyl, found almost exclusively in druses of small crystals. It is formed from the oxidation of copper sulfides, and was first described in specimens from Cornwall, England.
303 LAPIS LAZULI Lapis Lazuli Lazur blue, violet, green-blue 5 - 6 2.50 - 3.00 Opaque Uncommon Afghanistan, Russia, Chile, Angola, Burma, Canada, Pakistan Sodium Calcium Aluminum Silicate Sulfur Sulfate Lapis lazuli was already used in prehistoric times for jewelry. During the Middle Ages, it was also used as a pigment to produce aquamarine. Today it is used for ring stones and necklace as well as sculptures, vases and other ornamental objects.
304 LARIMAR Pectolite Light-blue, green-blue 5 - 7 2.84 - 2.90 Opaque Uncommon Dominican Republic Sodium silicate Larimar was originally discovered in 1916 by a Spanish priest who reported the discovery but no mining was done. It was determined by geologists that larimar is a rare form of blue pectolite.
305 LAUMONTITE Zeolite Colorless, pink, white, grey, yellow, brown, golden brown 3½ - 4 2.23 - 2.41 Opaque Very Common Denmark, Ecuador, Fiji, France, Hungary, India, Nicaragua, Sweden, Turkey, UK Hydrated calcium aluminum silicate A mineral, of a white color and vitreous luster. It is a hydrous silicate of alumina and lime. If exposed to the air, it loses water, becomes opaque, and crumbles.
306 LAVA STONE Volcanic Dark to light brown, stone grey 6 2.8 Opaque Very Common Worldwide Mostly silicon dioxide with large amounts of impurities A Lava Stone (often shortened to volcanics in scientific contexts) is a rock formed from magma erupted from a volcano. In other words, it differs from other igneous rock by being of volcanic origin.
307 LAVENDER QUARTZ Quartz White, grey, green, yellow, brown 6½ - 7 2.58 - 2.64 Transparent to Translucent Very Common Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Isle Of Man, Italy, Japan, Madagascar, Kazakhstan, Namibia, Morocco Silicon Oxide Quartz belongs to the rhombohedral crystal system. The ideal crystal shape is a six-sided prism terminating with six-sided pyramids at each end. In nature quartz crystals are often twinned, distorted, or so intergrown with adjacent crystals of quartz or other minerals.
308 LAZULITE Lazulite Dark blue to blue-white, green-blue 5 - 6 3.04 - 3.14 Transparent to Translucent Uncommon Angola, Bolivia, Brazil, India, Madagascar, Austria, Sweden and United States Hydroxyy phosphate of Aluminum, mahnesium and iron Lazulite forms by high grade metamorphism of high silica quartz rich rocks and in pegmatites. It is considered a semi-precious gemstone. It is often confused with lazurite, lapis lazuli or azurite.
309 LAZURITE Tectosilicate Sodalite Deep blue, azure, violet-blue, greenish blue 5 - 5.5 2.38 - 2.45 Translucent to Opaque Uncommon USA, Afghanistan, Burma, Canada, Chile Hydroxyy phosphate of Aluminum, mahnesium and iron Lazurite is a product of contact metamorphism of limestone and typically is associated with calcite, pyrite, diopside, humite, forsterite, hauyne and muscovite
310 LINARITE Linarite-Chenite Deep azure blue 2.5 5.3 Transparent to Translucent Uncommon Plateau, Spain Basic sulfate of lead and copper Linarite is a somewhat rare, crystalline mineral that is known among mineral collectors for its unusually intense, pure blue color.
311 LEAD Copper group Metallic grey, blue-white, grey-black 11.37 Opaque Common Ethiopia, Greenland, Mexico, Mongolia, Poland, Sweden Lead Lead is a soft, malleable poor metal, also considered to be one of the heavy metals. Lead has a bluish-white color when freshly cut, but tarnishes to a dull grayish color when exposed to air.
312 LEAD SULFIDE Copper group Colorless, white, tinted grey, yellow, green, blue, colorless 2½ - 3 6.37 - 6.39 Opaque Common Armenia, Cuba, France, Japan Ghana, India, Iran Lead Sulphate Lead sulphide (also spelled sulfide) is most often purified from the mineral galena. It is synonym of Anglesite.
313 LEGRANDITE Arsenate Bright yellow, wax-yellow, colorless 4.5 - 5 3.98 - 4.01 Translucent to Opaque Uncommon Germany, Greece, Mexico, USA Zinc Arsenate Legrandite was named for a Belgian mine engineer known only as a Mr. Legrand, who was the first to collect the mineral. An uncommon mineral, occurs in oxidized zinc-arsenic bearing deposits, and can be found, albeit rarely, in granite pegmatites.
314 LEMON QUARTZ Please see Quartz
315 LENGENBACHITE Sulfides Steel-grey, black, grey-blue 1 - 2 5.8 - 5.85 Translucent to Opaque Uncommon Switzerland Lead Arsenic Antimony Sulfide Lengenbachite from its only known occurrence at Binntal in the Swiss Dolomites, was described by R.H. Solly (1905). The mineral is layered, with a perfect cleavage and is relatively malleable.
316 LEPIDOLITE Silicates Violet, pale pink, white, grey, yellow 2.5 2.76 Opaque Uncommon Brazil; Ural Mountains, Russia; several African localities and California, USA Potassium lithium aluminum silicate Hydroxyide fluoride Lepidolite is an uncommon mica and has only in the past decade become available on the mineral market in large quantities. Lepidolite is an ore of lithium and forms in granitic masses that contain a substantial amount of lithium.
317 LEUCITE Tectosilicates Colorless, white, yellow 5 1/2 - 6 2.45 - 2.50 Opaque Very Common Brazil, Cameroon, France, Czech Republic, Germany, Greenland, Hungary, India Potassium aluminum silicate Leucite is a rock-forming mineral composed of potassium and Aluminum tectosilicate
318 LEVYNE Zeolite Brown and in many shades 4 - 4.5 2.09 -2.16 Transparent to Translucent Uncommon India, Iceland, Japan, Australia, USA Calcium Sodium Potassium Aluminosilicate Hydrate Levyne crystallizes in the Trigonal - Hexagonal Scalenohedral class. It typically occurs as radiating clusters or fibrous masses that are transparent to translucent in colors ranging from white through reddish and yellowish white to gray.
319 LIDDICOATITE Tourmaline Usually smoky brown, but also pink, red, green, blue, or rarely white 7.5 3.02 Transparent to Translucent Uncommon Canada, Madagascar Calcium Lithium Aluminum Boro-Silicate Hydroxyide Liddicoatite is an uncommon form of Tourmaline. It was not recognized as a separate Tourmaline species until 1977. Prior to that time, it was thought to be Elbaite.
320 LIGNITE Coal Brown-black 2½-4 1.03 Opaque Common Bolivia, Dominican Republic, Germany, Spain, Thailand, Turkey Mainly Carbon (Mixed) Lignite, often referred to as brown coal, or Rosebud coal by Northern Pacific Railroad, is a soft brown fuel with characteristics that put it somewhere between coal and peat.
321 LIMESTONE BRACHIOPODS Calcite Light yellow, light brown, pink, red 3 - 4 2.50 - 2.70 Opaque Common Biochemical Origin Calcium Carbonate Limestone is calcareous sedimentary rocks formed at the bottom of lakes and seas with the accumulation of shells, bones and other calcium rich goods. The organic matter upon which it settles in lakes or seas, are preserved as fossils.
322 LIMESTONE JURASSIC RED Limestone is a sedimentary rock consisting of more than 50% calcium carbonate ( calcite - CaCO 3). There are many different types of limestone formed through a variety of processes. Limestone can be precipitated from water ( non-clastic, chemical or inorganic limestone).
323 LIMONITE Amorphous, mineraloid Light brown, brown, yellow-brown 4 - 5½ 2.7 - 4.3 Opaque Common Europe, Mexico, Canada and northeastern USA Iron Oxide Limonite is an iron ore consisting of a mixture of hydrated iron(III) oxide-Hydroxyides in varying composition. Limonite is one of the two principle iron ores, the other being hematite, and has been mined for the production of iron since at least 2500 BCE.
324 LIROCONITE Arsenate Sky-blue, green, light blue 2 - 2½ 2.9 - 3 Translucent to Opaque Uncommon Slovakia, Germany, USA, UK, Australia Hydrated Copper Aluminum Arsenate Hydroxyide Liroconite is a truly beautiful mineral with a typical bright blue color, a nice glassy luster and an interesting crystal habit. It forms from the oxidation of primary copper ores.
325 LIZARDITE Serpentine Bright green, yellow green, brown green 2-2.5 3.18 - 3.24 Translucent to Opaque Uncommon UK, Germany, Slovakia, USA, South Africa, Norway Potassium Hydroxide Lizardite belongs to the kaolinite-serpentinite group of minerals and is one of three minerals commonly referred to as ‘serpentine’. Lizardite is the most common of the three serpentine minerals and is typically found with brucite and magnetite.
326 LORANDITE Sulfosalt mineral Red, lead grey 2 - 2½ 5.53 Transparent to Translucent Uncommon China, Republic of Macedonia, Russia, Switzerland, USA Thallium Sulfarsenites Lorandite occurs in low temperature hydrothermal associations. Occurs in gold and mercury ore deposits.
327 LUCKY STONE Ear Bone/Ivory White 2.5 - 3 1.67 Opaque Uncommon Canada Lucky stone is actually the unique ear bone or otolith of a Freshwater Drum, commonly known as the Sheephead Fish. The Sheephead's otoliths are quite large and look almost polished and ivory-like.
328 LUNA STONE See Moonstone
329 MAGNESITE Carbonate White or grey, also tinted yellow or brown 4 – 4.5 2.98 - 3.02 Transparent to Translucent Common Austria; Bahia, Brazil; Korea; China; California, USA Magnesium Carbonate Magnesite does not ordinarily form good crystals, but can make up a substantial portion of some rock types. It forms commonly from the alteration of magnesium-rich rocks during low grade metamorphism while they are in contact with carbonate-rich solutions.
330 MAGNETITE Spinel Iron black 5½ - 6½ 5.175 Opaque Uncommon Japan, Ecuador, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Greenland, India, Serbia, Thailand Iron Oxide Magnetite is the most magnetic of all the naturally occurring minerals on Earth, and naturally magnetized deposits of magnetite, or lodestone, was how ancient man first discovered the property of magnetism.
331 MALACHITE Malachite Light to black-green, banded 3 1/2 - 4 3.25 - 4.10 Opaque Common Zaire, Australia, Chile, Namibia, Zimbabwe, United States Hydroxy of Copper Carbonate Malachite was popular with the ancient Egyptians, Greeks and Romans for jewelry, amulets and as a powder for eye shadow, nowadays popular for jewelry and ornaments.
332 MANGANESE Metal Steel-grey 7.01 Opaque Common Chile, USA Manganese It is found as a free element in nature (often in combination with iron), and in many minerals. As a free element, manganese is a metal with important industrial metal alloy uses, particularly in stainless steels.
333 MANGANOCALCITE Calcite Pink 3 2.69 - 2.71 Translucent to Opaque Uncommon Slovakia, Mexico, Bulgaria Calcium Carbonate Manganocalcite is a variety of calcite rich in manganese, which gives the mineral a pink color. Manganocalcite is sometimes confused with rhodochrosite.
334 MANGANOTANTALITE Oxide minerals Dark black, iron-black to dark brown, reddish brown 6 - 6.5 8 Opaque Uncommon Malawi, Namibia, Mozambique, Norway Iron Manganese Tantalum Niobium Oxide Manganotantalite is a form of iron-rich tantalite with characteristics similar to those of Tantalite.
335 MAPS / SURVEY Mapping/Surveying is the technique, profession, and science of accurately determining the terrestrial or three-dimensional position of points and the distances and angles between them, commonly practiced by licensed surveyors.
336 MARBLE Calcite White, green, grey-brown, blue-grey 3 2.76 Opaque Very Common Afghanistan, Argentina, Austria, Canada, Norway, USA Calcium Carbonate Marble is the product of metamorphism on Limestone. Typically this metamorphic rock is composed primarily of carbonates, primarily Calcite (Calcium Carbonate).
337 MARCASITE Sulfide mineral Pale brass-yellow, tin-white 6 - 6½ 4.887 Opaque Common USA, Mexico, Canada, Tanzania, China, India Iron sulfide The mineral marcasite, sometimes called white iron pyrite, is iron sulfide (FeS2) with orthorhombic crystal structure. It is physically and crystallographically distinct from pyrite, which is iron sulfide with cubic crystal structure.
339 MARIPOSA MARBLE Calcite White, green, grey-brown, blue-grey 3 2.76 Opaque Very Common Afghanistan, Argentina, Austria, Canada, Norway, USA Calcium Carbonate Marble is the product of metamorphism on Limestone. Typically this metamorphic rock is composed primarily of carbonates, primarily Calcite (Calcium Carbonate).
340 MARRA MAMBA Oxides and Hydroxyides Red, light to dark brown, with shades of orange 5 - 6 2.63 - 2.65 Opaque Uncommon South Africa, Namibia, Australia, India, Thailand Iron Oxide Marra Mamba forms when Quartz forms over existing bluish-gray Crocidolite. Crocidolite is a type of asbestos mineral, which means its composition is of fine, dense fibers. These fibers form in a parallel yet wavy orientation, and this causes the intriguing chatoyant effect exhibited. Marra Mama is another word for Tiger's Eye.
341 MAW SIT SIT Maw-sit-sit Light green, black 6 - 7 2.5 to 3 Opaque Common Myanmar Aluminum Chromium Oxide Maw-sit-sit is a chromium-rich metamorphic rock with brilliant emerald green blotches and bands interspersed with dark green-black blotches. It was first noted in the early 1960’s by the famed Swiss gemologist Eduard J. Gübelin during field investigations in Burma.
342 MEERSCHAUM Sepiolite White, light grey, light yellow 2 - 2.5 2.0 - 2.1 Opaque Common China, Greece, Hungary, Kenya, Malaysia, Norway, Turkey Potassium aluminum silicate Hydroxyide fluoride Meerschaum, also known as sepiolite, is a soft white mineral, often used to make smoking pipes. It is sometimes found floating on the Black Sea.
343 MELLITE Tetragonal Honey to wax yellow, brown to reddish, gray, seldom white 2-2.5 1.64 Transparent to Translucent Common Arten, Thüringen, Germany organic minerals It is a translucent honey-coloured crystal which can be polished and faceted to form striking gemstones. It crystallizes in the tetragonal system and occurs both in good crystals and as formless masses.
344 MERCURY Metal Tin white, silver, grey Could not be measured 13.596 Opaque Uncommon Chile, China, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Japan, Mexico Mercury Mercury is officially classed as a mineral species for historical reasons, and also because it is distinctive in its chemical and physical properties. However, because it occurs as a liquid, it does not satisfy the normal criteria to be a valid mineral.
345 MESOLITE Zeolite Colorless, white, grey, yellow 5 2.26 Transparent to Translucent Uncommon Antarctica, Australia, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Nicaragua, Panama Hydrated sodium calcium aluminum silicate Mesolite is a popular zeolite mineral for mineral collectors and zeolite collectors in particular. Its radiating sprays of ice-clear acicular crystals are a hallmark of this mineral.
346 MESOTYPE Natrolite White, colorless, red, yellow, brown, green 5 - 5½ 2.2 - 2.26 Transparent to Translucent Uncommon Austria, Azerbaijan, Cameroon, Chile, Guam, Lesotho Hydrated sodium calcium aluminum silicate Mesotype is a common and popular zeolite mineral. Its radiating sprays of ice clear acicular crystals are not exclusive to natrolite but they are a hallmark of this mineral.
347 METAL A general name given to typically hard, shiny, malleable, fusible, and ductile minerals/gemstones, with good electrical and thermal conductivity.
348 METAMORPHIC ROCK Varies Varies Varies Varies Opaque Varies Varies Metamorphic Rock Metamorphic rocks arise from the transformation of existing rock types, in a process called metamorphism, which means "change in form".
349 METAVAUXITE white, light green 3 2.345 Transparent to Translucent metavauxite Named in 1927 by Samuel George Gordon allusion to the chemical relationship to Vauxite.
350 METEORITE Silicate minerals Asteroids Orange, yellow, red, blue-green, black, purple 4.5 3.21-3.40 Opaque Uncommon Worldwide Elemental Iron-nickel A meteorite is a natural object originating in outer space that survives an impact with the Earth's surface. While in space it is called a meteoroid.
351 MICA Mica White, yellow, green, brown, silver 2-2.5 2.8 Translucent Very Common USA, South America, South Africa, Romania, Iran, Egypt Potassium aluminum silicate Hydroxyide fluoride The micas are an important group of minerals. They represent the classic phyllosilicate mineral and are usually the first minerals to be thought of from this subclass of the Silicates Class.
352 MICROCLINE Feldspar White, grey, grey-yellow, tan, salmon-pink, blue-green, green 6 - 6½ 2.54 - 2.57 Translucent to Opaque Very Common China, Egypt, Finland, Guyana, India, Madagascar Potassium Aluminum Silicate Microcline is an important igneous rock-forming tectosilicate mineral. It is a potassium-rich alkali feldspar. Microcline typically contains minor amounts of sodium. Amazon stone, or amazonite, is a beautiful green variety of microcline.
353 MIMETITE Pyromorphite Pale-yellow, yellow-brown, orange, white, colorless 3½ - 4 7.24 Translucent to Opaque Uncommon Australia, Bulgaria, Greece, Mexico, Morocco, Namibia, Portugal, Sweden, Thailand Lead arsenate chloride Mimetite shares the same structure with apatite and occasionally crystals of the two will have similar shapes. It usually is found as a botryoidal crust, a sparkling cauliflower aggregation or as minute spike-like crystals.
354 MILLERITE Pale brass-yellow to bronze-yellow, tarnishes to iridescenc 3 - 3.5 Opaque nickel sulfide Millerite is a common metamorphic mineral replacing pentlandite within serpentinite ultramafics. It is formed in this way by removal of sulfur from pentlandite or other nickeliferous sulfide minerals during metamorphism or metasomatism.
355 MINERAL COMPOUNDS / MIXTURES / ALLOYS Non mineral general items
356 MINERAL SCIENCE Non mineral general items
357 MINERS Non mineral general items
358 MINING Non mineral general items
359 MINING TOOLS Non mineral general items
360 MOHAWKITE Copper Pale-brass yellow, silver-gold 3 - 3.5 8.07 Opaque Uncommon Keweenaw Peninsula of Michigan Copper Arsenide Mohawkite is a rare rock consisting of mixtures of arsenic and copper, usually in white quartz matrix. It is name after the Mohawk mine were it was found originally.
361 MOLDAVITE Tektite Black, green or colorless 5 - 6 2.5 Translucent to Opaque Uncommon Moldavia, Czech Republic, Austria, USA Silica glass with impurities of magnesium Moldavites are especially prized for their clarity and unique green color. Moldavites are found in a "splash field" centered around Moldavia in former Czechoslovakia and are believed to have come from a meteorite crater in Germany.
362 MOLYBDENUM Metal Metallic white, metallic silver 5.5 10.2 Opaque Uncommon United States, Canada, Chile, Russia, and China Molybdenum Sulfide Molybdenum is found in such minerals as wulfenite and powellite , the main commercial source of molybdenum is molybdenite. Molybdenum is mined as a principal ore, and is also recovered as a byproduct of copper and tungsten mining.
363 MONAZITE Monazite Red-brown, brown, pale yellow, pink, green, grey 5 - 5½ 5 - 5.5 Translucent Common Bolivia, Cameroon, Finland, Mozambique, Oman, Pakistan, Paraguay Rare earth phosphate Monazite is a reddish-brown phosphate mineral containing rare earth metals and is an important source of thorium, lanthanum, and cerium. It occurs usually in small isolated crystals. There are actually at least four different kinds of monazite.
364 MONTANA AGATE Please see Agate
365 MOHAWKITE Silicate Red, yellow, tan, white 6.5 - 7.0 2.58 - 2.91 Opaque Uncommon Kennedy Ranges near Gascoyne Junction in Western Australia Silicon dioxide Mookaite is a siliceous, comparatively hard, fine-grained, chert-like, and homogeneous sedimentary rock that is composed predominantly of the microscopic remains of radiolarians.
366 MOONSTONE Feldspar Orthoclase Colorless, yellow, pale sheen 6 - 6 1/2 2.56 - 2.59 Translucent Very Common Sri Lanka, Burma, Brazil, India, Madagascar Sodium Calcium Aluminum Silicate Moonstone's delicate beauty and its long heritage make it perhaps the most familiar gem quality member of the feldspar group. Moonstone is composed of two feldspar species, orthoclase and albite.
367 MORDENITE Zeolite Red-brown, brown, pale yellow, pink, grey 5 - 5½ 2.1 - 2.15 Translucent to Opaque Common Brazil, Bulgaria, Costa Rica, China, France, Greece Hydrated Calcium Sodium Potassium Aluminum Silicate Mordenite is one of the most abundant zeolites in altered volcanic deposits; it is found in volcanic rock such as rhyolite, andesite, and basalt. It is associated with other zeolites such as stilbite and heulandite. It is also found in marine sediments.
368 MORGANITE Beryl Soft pink, violet, salmon 7.5 - 8 2.71 - 2.90 Transparent Common Afghanistan, Brazil, China, Madagascar, Mozambique, Namibia, Zimbabwe Beryllium Aluminum Silicate Morganite, also known as "pink beryl", "rose beryl", "pink emerald", and "cesian (or caesian) beryl", is a rare light pink to rose-colored gem-quality variety of beryl.
369 MOSS STONE Chalcedony Red to dark brown 5.5 - 6 1.98 - 2.05 Opaque Very Common Australia, USA, Sodium Iron Magnesium Silicate Hydroxyide Moss Stones are delicate gemstones. Their most significant vulnerability has to do with their water content. If a Moss Stone is allowed to dry, it will crack and fade.
370 MULTIPLE STONES Mixture of stones
371 MUSGRAVITE Gray-green, green 8-8.5 3.62 to 3.68 Transparent Australia Taaffeite Musgravite or magnesiotaaffeite-6N’3S (chemical formula of Be(Mg, Fe, Zn)2Al6O12), is a rare oxide mineral. It is used as a gemstone. Its type locality is the Ernabella Mission, Musgrave Ranges, South Australia for which it was named.
372 MUSCOVITE Mica White, colorless, silver-white 2.77 - 2.88 Translucent Very Common Angola, Burundi, Chile, Ecuador, Peru, Poland Hydrous potassium aluminum silicate Muscovite is the most common mica, found in granites, pegmatites, gneisses, and schists. It is in demand for the manufacture of fireproofing and insulating materials and to some extent as a lubricant.
373 NACRE Nacre is found in some of the most ancient lineages of bivalves, gastropods, and cephalopods. However, the inner layer in the great majority of mollusc shells is porcellaneous, not nacreous.
374 NAMBULITE Manganese Reddish orange brown 6.5 3.51 Transparent to Translucent Uncommon Japan, Nambia, Italy Manganese Iron Magnesium Calcium Nambulite is formed from the reaction between a hydrothermal solution and rhodonite, and commonly creates veins in the host rock. Other than a collector’s gem, however, it has little economic value.
375 NAHCOLITE Carbonate White to colourless, may be grey to brown 2.5 2.21 Transparent to translucent Common ITALY Sodium bicarbonate or sodium hydrogen carbonate is the chemical compound with the formula NaHCO3. The natural mineral form is nahcolite. It is a component of the mineral natron and is found dissolved in many mineral springs.
376 NATROLITE Zeolite Colorless to White 5 - 5.5 2.2 Transparent to Translucent Common India, USA, Nova Scotia Sodium Aluminosilicate Hydrate Natrolite is a common and popular zeolite mineral. Its radiating sprays of ice clear acicular crystals are not exclusive to natrolite but they are a hallmark of this mineral.
377 NATURAL GAS A mixture of hydrocarbon gases that occurs with petroleum deposits, principally methane together with varying quantities of ethane, propane, butane, and other gases, and is used as a fuel and in the manufacture of organic compounds.
378 NEBULA White,Green Mexico, USA Nebula Stone is also called ‘The Birthstone of the Cosmos’ and holds a rare combination of Arfedsonite, Zircon, Calcite, Acmite, Anorthoclase, Riebeckite, Aegirine, Quartz, and many other minerals.
379 NELLITE Yellow, Light orange. 4 5.88 Translucent Laurion, Attica, Greece Nellite is a massive silicate that forms where tiger eye and pietersite meet: it's like a blend of both. Nellite has the golden, translucent glow of tiger eye in quartz
380 NEPHRITE Jade Green, also other colors 6 - 6 1/2 2.90 - 3.03 Opaque Uncommon New Zealand, Australia, Brazil, China, Canada, Mexico, Zimbabwe, Taiwan, United States Silicate of Calcium, magnesium and iron Nephrite is dense, felt-like actionolite that is even tougher than jadeite. It uses as cabochons in other jewelry and for vases both decorative and religious.
381 NEPHRITE JADE See Nephrite and Jade
382 NEPTUNITE Silicate Visually black, with very dark maroon highlights visible on some edges or in backlighting. 5 - 6 3.2 - 3.3 Opaque Rare USA, Russia, Canada Silicate of potassium, sodium, lithium, iron, manganese, and titanium Neptunite is a relatively recent mineral, having been first discovered only in the early 1900's. It is named after Neptunus, the Roman god of the sea, and its etymology is derived from its similarity to Aegrine, which was named after the Norse sea god.
383 NETROLITES Please see Mesotype/Mesolite
384 NICCOLITE Arsenide mineral Pale copper red 5 - 5½ 7.784 Opaque Uncommon Ghana, Greece, Greenland, Hungary, Iran, Morocco Nickel arsenide Niccolite or Nickeline is a mineral consisting of nickel arsenide, NiAs, containing 43.9% nickel and 56.1% arsenic.Small quantities of sulfur, iron and cobalt are usually present, and sometimes the arsenic is largely replaced by antimony.
385 NICKEL Metal White 8.908 Opaque Uncommon Italy, Slovakia, Sweden, USA Nickel Nickel is a silvery-white metal with a slight golden tinge that takes a high polish. It is one of only four elements that are magnetic at or near room temperature. It belongs to the transition metals and is hard and ductile.
386 OBSIDIAN Natural Glass Black, grey, brown, green 5 - 5 1/2 2.35 - 2.60 Opaque Uncommon Ecuador, Indonesia, Iceland, Italy, Japan, Mexico and United States Silicon Dioxide Obsidian is a naturally occurring volcanic glass formed as an extrusive igneous rock. The silicas left over after most of the other elements and water have been used up are ejected or flow out and rapidly chilled at surface temperatures.
387 OCEAN WAVE AGATE Please see Agate
388 OCEAN WAVE JASPER Please see Jasper
389 OIL Any of a number of viscous liquids with a smooth sticky feel. They are usually flammable, insoluble in water, soluble in organic solvents, and are obtained from plants and animals, from mineral deposits, and by synthesis.
390 OKENITE Inosilicates White to Yellow 4.5 - 5 2.3 Transparent to Translucent Uncommon India, Greenland, Chile, Ireland Silicate Hydrate Okenite is an unusual mineral. It frequently forms "cottonball" clusters where the crystals are so thin they look like tiny fibers. s.
391 OLENITE Tourmaline Light pink, blue, colourless 7 3.01 Translucent Uncommon Austria, Italy, Russia, USA Aluminum-rich tourmaline Olenite is a very Al-rich member of the Tourmaline Group. Named for the type locality area, an unspecified granite pegmatite on the small Olenii Ridge, Kola Peninsula, Russia.
392 OLIVINE Silicate Yellow-green, olive green, green-black, red-brown 6½ - 7 3.27 - 3.37 Translucent to Opaque Very Common Venezuela, Vietnam, Zimbabwe, Tanzania, Trinidad and Tobago, Uganda Magnesium iron silicate Olivines are an important rock-forming mineral group. Magnesium-rich olivines are abundant in low-silica mafic and ultramafic igneous rocks and are believed to be the most abundant constituent of the Earth’s upper mantle.
393 OMPHACITE JADE Pyroxene Dark to Pale Green 5 - 6 3.16 - 3.43 Opaque Common Austria, China, Germany, USA, Italy, Norway Calcium Rich Silicate Omphacite is a member of the pyroxene group of silicate minerals with a variably deep to pale green or nearly colorless variety of pyroxene.
394 ONYX Chalcedony Almost every color , shades of purple or blue 7 2.65 Translucent to Opaque Very Common Madagascar, Germany, Canada, Russia, UK Calcium Carbonate Onyx is a cryptocrystalline form of quartz. It is usually cut as a cabochon, or into beads, and is also used for intaglios and cameos, where the bands make the image contrast with the ground.
395 OPAL Opal Colorless, white, yellow, red, orange, green, brown, black, blue, pink 5½ - 6½ 1.9 - 2.3 Transparent to Opaque Very Common Venezuela, Vietnam, India, Zimbabwe, Tanzania, Trinidad and Tobago, Uganda Silica with Water Opal is a silica mineral extensively used as a gemstone, a submicrocrystalline variety of cristobalite. In ancient times opal was included among the noble gems and was ranked second only to emerald by the Romans. It is a mineraloid gel which is deposited at a relatively low temperature
396 OPALITE Opal Colorless, white, yellow, red, orange, green, brown, black, blue, pink 2.5 1.2 Opaque Very Common Worldwide Hydrated Silicon Dioxide Opalite is a trade name for synthetic opalised glass and various opal simulants. It is also used to promote impure varieties of variously colored common opal.
397 ORBICULAR DIORITE Plutonic Black, grey 7 2.8 - 3.0 Opaque Uncommon Corsica, South Africa, North Carolina Intermediate Intrusive Igneous Rock An Orbicular Diorite is a variety of diorite which is characterized by orbicular structure. The grey matrix of the stone has the normal appearance of a diorite, but contains many rounded lumps 1 or 2 inches in diameter.
398 ORBICULAR DIORITE W/ HORNBLENDE Plutonic Black, grey 7 2.8 - 3.0 Opaque Uncommon Corsica, South Africa, North Carolina Intermediate Intrusive Igneous Rock An Orbicular Diorite is a variety of diorite which is characterized by orbicular structure. The grey matrix of the stone has the normal appearance of a diorite, but contains many rounded lumps 1 or 2 inches in diameter.
399 ORBICULAR GRANITE Plutonic Dark and light grey 2.5 2.65 - 2.75 Opaque Uncommon Finland and South Africa Intermediate Intrusive Igneous Rock Orbicular granite (also known as orbicular rock or orbiculite) is an uncommon plutonic rock type which is usually granitic in composition. These rocks have a unique appearance due to orbicules.
400 ORBICULAR RHYOLITE Chalcedony Light Brown, pink 6.5 to 7 2.4 - 2.6 Opaque Common Madagascar, Russia, USA Extrusive Volcanic Rock Orbicular Rhyolite is a variety of jasper which contains variably-colored orbs or spherical inclusions or zones. In highly silicified rhyolite or tuff, quartz and feldspar crystallize in radial aggregates of needle-like crystals which provide the basis or seed for the orbicular structure seen in this kind of jasper. The material is quite attractive when polished and is used as an ornamental stone or gemstone.
401 ORPIMENT Sulfide mineral Orange-yellow, lemon-yellow 1½ - 2 3.49 Transparent Uncommon Georgia, Hungary, Indonesia, Ireland, Kyrgyzstan Arsenic sulfide Orpiment is known as "King's Yellow", "Chinese Yellow" and "Yellow Orpiment". It is often found in association with realgar. It takes its name from the Latin auripigmentum because of its deep yellow color
402 ORTHOCLASE Igneous Green, Grey-Yellow, White, Pink, Colorless 6 2.55 - 2.63 Transparent to Opaque Very Common Worldwide Feldspar Orthoclase Orthoclase is one of the most common minerals, and occurs in numerous mineral environments. It is polymorphous with the minerals Microcline and Sanidine. These three minerals form the Potassium Feldspar group.
403 ORTHOCERAS Please check fossil.
405 PALM WOOD JASPER Please see jasper.
406 PAPAGOITE Cyclosilicate Light blue 5-5.5 Transparent to translucent uncommon Arizona,Usa calcium copper aluminium silicate hydroxide it's bright blue color is the mineral's most notable characteristic.It is used as a gemstone.
408 PARSETTENSITE Manganese Copper Red 1.5 2.54 Opaque Uncommon Italy, New Zealand, Japan, the United States, and South Africa Modulated Layer Silicate Group Parsettensite was named for its type locality at Parsettens Alpe in Switzerland. It is an uncommon mineral found in just a few localities including, additionally, Italy, New Zealand, Japan, the United States, and South Africa. Parsettensite can be found in and around manganese deposits.
409 PEARL Pearl White-silver, rose, green, blue, black 2.65 - 2.78 Opaque Common Persian Gulf, Southeast Asia, India, Sri Lanka, Australia, Central America Calcium Carbonate The word "pearl" is synonymous with "bead". Valuable pearls occur in the wild, but they are very rare. Pearls from the sea are valued more highly than freshwater pearls.
410 PEANUT WOOD Argentina,Australia ,Belgium,Brazil See petrified wood.
411 PECTOLITE Pyroxenoid White, colorless or gray, pale to sky blue 4.5 -5 2.7 -2.9 Transparent to Translucent Common USA, Dominican Republic, Italy, England Sodium Calcium Silicate Hydroxide Pectolite is a nice specimen type mineral, meaning that it can form interesting specimens from time to time. However it was not all that well-regarded until a variety was discovered in the Bahamas and the Dominican Republic.
412 PERIDOT Peridot Yellow-green, olive-green, brown 6½ - 7 3.28 - 3.48 Transparent to Translucent Common Burma, Australia, Brazil, China, Kenya, Mexico, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, South Africa, Tanzania Magnesium Iron Silicate Peridot is gem-quality olivine (olivine is a silicate mineral). As peridot is the magnesium-rich variety (forsterite) the formula approaches Mg2SiO4. The name derives from Greek, but the meaning is uncertain.
413 PETOSKEY STONE Rock Fossil Light green, light grey 4.5 - 5 2.56 Opaque Common Michigan Fossilized Coral A Petoskey stone is a rock and a fossil, often pebble-shaped, that is composed of a fossilized coral, Hexagonaria percarinata.
414 PETRIFIED PALM Chalcedony Varies 7 1.9 - 2.5 Opaque Common Hungary, Indonesia, Libya, Thailand, New Zealand Silicon Dioxide Petrified wood is the name given to a special type of fossilized remains of terrestrial vegetation. It is the result of a tree or tree-like plants having completely transitioned to stone by the process of permineralization. All the organic materials have been replaced with minerals , while retaining the original structure of the stem tissue.
415 PETRIFIED WOOD Chalcedony Varies 7 1.9 - 2.5 Opaque Common Hungary, Indonesia, Libya, Thailand, New Zealand Silicon Dioxide Petrified wood is the name given to a special type of fossilized remains of terrestrial vegetation. It is the result of a tree or tree-like plants having completely transitioned to stone by the process of permineralization.
416 PETROLEUM A liquid mixture of hydrocarbons that is present in certain rock strata and can be extracted and refined to produce fuels including gasoline, kerosene, and diesel oil.
417 PHENAKITE Phenakite Colorless, white, tinted yellow, brown and pink 7.5 - 8 2.9 - 3 Transparent to Translucent Uncommon Russia, Brazil, California, USA, Norway Beryllium silicate Phenakite is a rare beryllium mineral, but it is found so frequently with precious gemstones that its availablity is not in proportion to its rarity. It is found in pegmatitic pockets and is associated with gemstones such as topaz, beryl especially emerald, chrysoberyl and smoky quartz.
418 PHORPHYRY Please check Rhyolite.
419 PHOSPHATE A type of chemcial composition forming a stone
420 PHOSPHOSIDERITE Metavariscite Peach-blossom-red, reddish violet, reddish purple, yellow-orange 3½ - 4 2.74 - 2.76 Transparent, Translucent Common Germeny Phosphosiderite is named after its composition: phosphate and iron (Greek - sideros)
421 PHOSPHOPHYLLITE Phosphate Blue-green to colorless, gray or black 3 - 3.5 3.1 Transparent to Translucent Uncommon Bolivia, USA, Germany Hydrated Zinc Iron Manganese Phosphate Phosphophyllite, whose cumbersome name means "phosphate leaf" in allusion to both its chemistry and cleavage, is a rare zinc and manganese mineral that is found at only a few localities.
422 PICASSO MARBLE Is a form of marble. See Marble.
423 PIETERSITE Chalcedony Blue, red, gold, brown 5 2.6 Translucent to Opaque Common China and Africa Magnesium Iron Silicate Pietersite is the trade name for a (usually) dark blue-gray breccia aggregate made up mainly of hawk's eye and tiger's eye. It was discovered by a man named Sid Pieters in 1962 in Namibia. He registered his find in Britain and the discovery was published in 1964.
424 PIETERSITE GREEN See Pietersite
425 PILBARA JASPER Chalcedony Red, yellow, brown, green, blue 6½ - 7 2.58 - 2.91 Opaque Common Egypt, Australia, Brazil, India, Canada, Kazakhstan, Madagascar, Russia Silicon Dioxide The appeal of Jasper is its interesting color patterns and formations. Though it can be a solid color, it is most often mottled, spotted, ringed, or striped. Each Jasper has a unique color or pattern, lending this gemstone much variety. Jasper is an opaque form of Chalcedony.
426 PINCTADA MAXIMA Pearl Oyster White-silver, rose, green, blue, black 2.65 - 2.78 Opaque Common Australia, Fiji, Tahiti, Indonesia, Philippines Calcium Carbonate Pinctada Maxima pearl oyster produces some the finest and most beautiful pearls in the world. The size of the shell is huge in comparison to any other shell available and caused a sensation in European and American markets when it first appeared. The average size of the shell is six to twelve inches.
427 PINOLITH Black to grey 3.5-4 Styria, Austria Pinolith is named for the appearance of the magnesite kernels found within the material. With their shape and color, it was first compared to pine nuts in early found rock.
428 PINK OPAL Please see Opal
430 PIPE STONE Clay Light brown, light red 1 - 2 2.08 Opaque Common Pipestone Minnesota and Pipestone River Ontario Potassium aluminum silicate Hydroxyide fluoride Pipestone is a type of argillite (metamorphosed mudstone), usually brownish-red in color. Because it is fine-grained and easily worked, it is prized by Native Americans for use in making sacred pipes.
431 PAINITE Hexagonal Red, brownish, orange-red 8 4 - 4.03 Transparent uncommon Mayanmar
432 PIRATES Pirates is one of the only gemstones that comes in only one color. Depending on iron count in gem, gems can appear pale yellow/green all the way to a rich deep olive color. Origin of name “Peridot” is unclear. It's only gemstone found in meteorites.
433 PIRITA 6 – 6.5 please check pyritesi
434 PLANCHEITE Chain Silicate Blue, blue-green 6 3.65 - 3.8 Translucent Uncommon France, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Namibia, Norway, South Africa, UK Hydrated Copper Silicate Hydroxyide Plancheite is another in the long list of secondary copper minerals. And like so many of them, this one is colorful, attractive, has interesting crystal habits and is definitely a good collection mineral. Its almost turquoise-like color is unique and its typical fibrous.
435 PLATINUM Metal Steel to dark grey 4 - 4½ 14 - 19 Opaque Uncommon Colombia, Japan, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Russia Platinum Platinum is a chemical element. A dense, malleable, ductile, precious, gray-white transition metal, platinum is resistant to corrosion and occurs in some nickel and copper ores along with some native deposits.
436 PLUME STONE Agate Dark to light green 5.5-6 2.58 - 2.64 Opaque Common USA, Canada Varies In allusion to the plume-like shapes exhibited in the material.
437 POLONIUM Polonium is a chemical element with the symbol Po and atomic number 84. A rare and highly radioactive element with no stable isotopes, polonium is chemically similar to bismuth and tellurium, and it occurs in uranium ores.
438 POLYCHROME JASPER Chalcedony Mixed 6½ - 7 2.58 - 2.91 Opaque Uncommon Madagascar Iron Oxide Polychrome Jasper is a beautifully vivid multicolored specimen.While searching for the now mined-out mineral, Ocean Jasper, a discovery of Polychrome Jasper was made in Madagascar.
439 POLYGRAM JASPER Please see Jasper
440 PORCELAIN JASPER Please see Jasper
441 PORPHYRY Igneous Brown, purple 3 2.54 Opaque Uncommon Egypt Sodium Carbonate Porphyry is a variety of igneous rock consisting of large-grained crystals, such as feldspar or quartz, dispersed in a fine-grained feldspathic matrix or groundmass.
442 POWELLITE Molybdate Yellow, Grey, Brown, Blue and Black 3 - 4 4.25 Transparent to Translucent Common USA, India, Turkey, Russia, Scotland Calcium Molybdate Powellite is named for the American geologist, Major John Wesley Powell, a former director of the U. S. Geological Survey. Most of powellite's occurrences are the result of hydrothermal reactions with the primary sulfide mineral molybdenite.
443 PRASIOLITE Quartz Light green, colorless 7 2.65 Transparent to Opaque Uncommon Brazil, Madagascar and Myanmar Silicon Dioxide Prasiolite is the green variety of Quartz. The material is extremely rare in nature and is only found in a handful deposits.
444 PRECIOUS STONE A precious or semi-precious stone is a piece of attractive mineral, which—when cut and polished—is used to make jewelry or other adornments. Diamond, Emerald, Ruby, Sapphire and Pearls etc
445 PREHNITE Prehnite Yellow-green, brown-yellow 6 - 6½ 2.82 - 2.94 Transparent to Translucent Common Australia, China, Scotland, South Africa and United States Beryllium Silicate It comes under Silicates group. Rare tabular , light green crystals. More often in greenish-white reniform, stalactitic or mammillary.
447 PRINT STONE Limestone White, yellow, light brown, pink, red 3 - 4 2.50 - 2.70 Opaque Common Biochemical Origin Calcium Carbonate Lithographic limestone is hard limestone that is sufficiently fine-grained, homogeneous and defect free to be used for lithography. Geologists use the term lithographic texture to refer to a grain size under 1/250 mm. The term sublithographic is sometimes used for homogeneous fine-grained limestone with a somewhat coarser texture.
449 PROUSTITE Proustite Dark red, red-grey, vermilion 2 - 2½ 5.57 Translucent to Opaque Uncommon Fiji, France, Hungary, Indonesia, Ireland, Italy, Madagascar Silver Arsenic Sulfide Proustite is a sulfosalt mineral consisting of silver sulfarsenide, known also as light red silver or ruby silver ore, and an important source of the metal. It is closely allied to the corresponding sulfantimonide, pyrargyrite.
450 PSILOMELANE Iron-black 5.0 - 6.0 4.7 - 4.72 Opaque Common Psilomelane are the barium manganese hydroxides that do not create visible crystals. They are originally considered a mineral species until they were discredited in 1982 by the International Mineralogical Association.
451 PUDDING STONE Conglomerate Grey-brown, stone grey 2.5-3 2.5 - 2.8 Opaque Uncommon Hertfordshire, Schunemunk, Roxbury, and St. Joseph Island Varies Puddingstone is a popular name applied to a conglomerate that consists of distinctly rounded pebbles whose colors contrast sharply with the color of the finer-grained, often sandy, matrix or cement surrounding them.
452 PURPURITE Triphylite Brownish black, violet, dark pink, dark red, reddish purple 4 - 4½ 3.2 - 3.4 Opaque Common USA,Australia, Namibia, France Manganese phosphate, Purpurite's color is purple, and although it is usually quite a deep purple, some pieces may be pinkish or lavender purple.
453 PYRARGYRITE Proustite Deep red, red-grey 5.82 Opaque Uncommon Bolivia, Bulgaria, Ecuador, Eritrea, Fiji, Hungary Silver Antimony Sulfide Pyrargyrite is a popular silver bearing mineral for collectors.The nickname "Ruby Silver" has been applied to pyrargyrite although it is typically applied to the related mineral proustite. Pyrargyrite is isostructural with proustite, a silver arsenic sulfide.
454 PYRITE Pyrite Brass-yellow, grey-yellow 6 - 6½ 5.00 - 5.20 Opaque Very Common Peru, Bolivia, Mexico, Romania, Sweden, United States Iron Sulfide Pyrite is wrongly called marcasite in the trade. True marcasite is a mineral, in many ways similar to pyrite. Because of its similarity to gold also called Fool's Gold.
455 PYRITE CUBE Please see pyrite.
456 PYRITE WITH QUARTZ Please see Pyrite and Quartz
457 PYROLUSITE Rutile Black, dark grey, shades of blue 6 - 6½ 4.4 - 5.06 Opaque Uncommon USA, Mexico, Namibia, Iran, Spain, China, Japan Manganese Oxide Pyrolusite is a mineral consisting essentially of manganese dioxide(MnO2) and is important as an oreof manganese. It is a black, amorphous appearing mineral, often with a granular, fibrous or columnar structure, sometimes forming reniform crusts.
458 PYROMORPHITE Apatite Green to dark green, yellow, orange-yellow, white, colorless 3½ - 4 7.04 Opaque Common Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Isle of Man, Italy, Japan, Madagascar, Kazakhstan, Namibia, Morocco Lead Chlorophosphate Pyromorphite is a member of the Apatite group, a group of isomorphous hexagonal minerals. It is very similar in structure and appearance to Mimetite, and may be partially replaced by it. It is a typical secondary mineral found in the oxidation zone of lead deposits.
459 PYROX MANCIT Pyroxene Light pink, purple 5½ - 6 3.61 - 3.8 Opaque Common Worldwide Manganese Iron Magnesium Calcium Silicate Easily confused with rhodonite; however, Pyroxmangite is a high-temperature environment mineral and syntheses have shown that pyroxmangite of MnSiO3 composition is the high-pressure, low-temperature polymorph with respect to rhodonite of the same composition.
460 PYROXENE Pyroxene Light pink, purple, black 6.5 - 7.0 3.0-4.0 Opaque Uncommon Iceland, India, Indonesia, Mars, Kazakhstan, Libya, Clinopyroxene The pyroxenes are closely related to a group of inosilicates called the pyroxenoids. This somewhat informal group of minerals has a similar chain structure but the chains in the pyroxenoid structures are more "kinked".
461 PYROXMANGITE Pyroxene Light pink, purple 5½ - 6 3.61 - 3.8 Opaque Common Worldwide Manganese Iron Magnesium Calcium Silicate Easily confused with rhodonite; however, Pyroxmangite is a high-temperature environment mineral and syntheses have shown that pyroxmangite of MnSiO3 composition is the high-pressure, low-temperature polymorph with respect to rhodonite of the same composition.
462 PYRRHOTITE Pyrrhotite Bronze brown, bronze red, dark brown 3½ - 4 4.58 - 4.65 Opaque Common Armenia, Cuba, Ghana, India, Iran Iron Sulfide Pyrrhotite has some unusual characteristics. First, it has an unusual formula. Secondly, it has two symmetries. While this should indicate that there are two minerals and not one, in the case of pyrrhotite, mineralogists have made an exception.
463 QUARTZ Quartz White, grey, green, yellow, brown 6½ - 7 2.58 - 2.64 Transparent to Translucent Very Common Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Isle Of Man, Italy, Japan, Madagascar, Kazakhstan, Namibia, Morocco Silicon Oxide Quartz belongs to the rhombohedral crystal system. The ideal crystal shape is a six-sided prism terminating with six-sided pyramids at each end. In nature quartz crystals are often twinned, distorted, or so intergrown with adjacent crystals of quartz or other minerals.
464 QUARTZ W/ IRON Please see Quartz and Iron
465 RADIUM Radioactive Element Colorless to Black N/A 5.5 Transparent to Opaque Uncommon N/A Uranium Oxide Radium is a radioactive chemical element. Its appearance is almost pure white, but it readily oxidizes on exposure to air, turning black. Radium is an alkaline earth metal that is found in trace amounts in uranium ores. It is extremely radioactive.
467 RAINBOW GARNET See Garnet.
469 RED JASPER Chalcedony Red, yellow, brown, green, blue 6½ - 7 2.58 - 2.91 Opaque Common Egypt, Australia, Brazil, India, Canada, Kazakhstan, Madagascar, Russia Silicon Dioxide The appeal of Jasper is its interesting color patterns and formations. Though it can be a solid color, it is most often mottled, spotted, ringed, or striped. Each Jasper has a unique color or pattern, lending this gemstone much variety. Jasper is an opaque form of Chalcedony.
470 RED MARBLE Calcite White, green, grey-brown, blue-grey 3 2.76 Opaque Very Common Afghanistan, Argentina, Austria, Canada, Norway, USA Calcium Carbonate Marble is the product of metamorphism on Limestone. Typically this metamorphic rock is composed primarily of carbonates, primarily Calcite (Calcium Carbonate).
471 REALGAR Orange to red 1.5 - 2 3.5 - 3.6 Transparent to Translucent Common China, Switzerland, Japan, USA Arsenic Sulfide Realgar is an oddball among the sulfides. It is one of only a few sulfides that are not metallic or opaque or blandly colored. Its structure is analogous to that of sulfur and resembles sulfur in most respects except for color (the name "ruby sulfur" has been applied to realgar).
472 REMONDITE Carbonate White, pink, orange and yellow 3 - 3.5 3.43 Transparent to Translucent Uncommon Cameroon, Canada, Russia Sodium Calcium Strontium Barium Cerium Carbonate Remondite is named in honor of Dr. Guy Rémond, a physicist for the Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières in Orléans, France who worked extensively on the physics of minerals.
473 RHODOCHROSITE Rhodochrosite Rose-red, yellow, striped 4 3.45 - 3.70 Translucent to Opaque Common Chile, Mexico, Peru, South Africa and United States Manganese Carbonate Rhodochrosite has been on the market only since about 1950. Transparent crystals are very rare. The aggregates are light-dark strips with zigzag bands. Usually used in larger pieces.
474 RHODOLITE Garnet Intermediate Varities Red, brown-red, violet, black 6½ - 7½ 4,2 Transparent to Translucent Common Greenland, Kenya, Mozambique, Norway, Sri Lanka, USA Magnesium Aluminum Silicate Rhodolite is a varietal name for rose-pink to red mineral pyrope, a species in the garnet group.
475 RHODONITE Rhodonite Dark red, flesh red, black 5½ - 6½ 3.40 - 3.74 Translucent to Opaque Uncommon Australia, Finland, Japan, Canada, Madagascar, Mexico, Russia, Sweden, South Africa, Tanzania and United States Manganese Silicate Rhodonite in addition to its red color usually has black dendritic inclusions of manganese oxide. Transparent varieties are very rare and faceted with table or brilliant cut.
476 RHYOLITE Chalcedony Light Brown, pink 6.5 to 7 2.4 – 2.6 Opaque Common Madagascar, Russia, USA Beryllium Aluminum Silicate Rhyolite is extrusive igneous rock that is the volcanic equivalent of granite. Most rhyolites are porphyritic, indicating that crystallization began prior to extrusion.
477 RICOLITE Serpentine Light green, light brown 4 - 5 2.5 Translucent to Opaque Common USA & New Mexico Magnesium Iron Silicate Hydroxyide A variety of serpentine interbanded with talc.
478 ROCKS / STONES Rocks are classified by mineral and chemical composition, by the texture of the constituent particles and by the processes that formed them.
479 ROSE QUARTZ Quartz Dark to light pink 7 2.65 Transparent to Translucent Very Common Brazil, Madagascar, India, Mozambique, Namibia, Sri Lank and United States. Silicon Dioxide Rose quartz is a translucent, usually turbid, very coarse-grained variety of the silica mineral quartz found in pegmatites.
480 ROSELITE Arsenate Dark rose red, pink 3.5 3.69 Translucent to Opaque Rare Germany, Italy, Morocco Hydrated Calcium Cobalt Magnesium Aresenate Roselite is a rare arsenate mineral. It was first described in 1825 for an occurrence in the Rappold mines of Schneeberg, Saxony, Germany and named for German mineralogist Gustav Rose who discovered this mineral.
481 RUBELLITE Tourmaline Pink, red, black, violet, green 7 2.98 - 3.2 Transparent to Translucent Common Nepal, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Tajikistan, UK, USA, Zimbabwe Sodium Lithium Aluminum Boro-Silicate Hydroxyide The Rubellite is a particularly beautiful gemstone from the colorful family of the tourmalines. Its color shines in the most beautiful nuances from red to shocking pink.
482 RUBIN CRYSTAL Please see Crystal
483 RUBY Corundum Varying red 9 3.97 - 4.05 Translucent Common Cambodia, Kenya, Nepal, New Zealand, Norway, Pakistan, Somaliland, Sri Lanka Aluminum Oxide Ruby is named because of its color. The hardest mineral after diamond, although only 1/40 as hard, it is seven times as hard as topaz. It has no cleavage, but has certain preferred directions of parting.
484 RE-CRYSTALLIZED RUBY Please see Ruby
485 RUBY ROCK Please see Ruby
486 RUBY IN ZOISITE Corundum Varying red 9 3.97 - 4.05 Translucent Common Cambodia, Kenya, Nepal, New Zealand, Norway, Pakistan, Somaliland, Sri Lanka Aluminum Oxide Ruby is named because of its color. The hardest mineral after diamond, although only 1/40 as hard, it is seven times as hard as topaz. It has no cleavage, but has certain preferred directions of parting. Because of brittleness, care must be take when cutting and setting.
487 RUBY W/ SAPPHIRE Please see Ruby and Sapphire
488 RUTILE QUARTZ Rutile Red-brown, blood-red or black 6 - 6½ 4.20 - 4.30 Transparent to Opaque Uncommon Burundi, Burma, Chad, Chile, Cuba, Egypt, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, Serbia Titanium Oxide Rutilated quartz is a rare mineral that is mainly made up of titanium dioxide.
489 SALOME MARBLE Please see Marble
490 SALT Sodium Light grey, white 2 2.16 Transparent to Translucent Common Worldwide Sodium Chloride Salt is a dietary mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride that is essential for animal life, but toxic to most land plants. Salt flavor is one of the basic tastes, an important preservative and a popular food seasoning. Salt for human consumption is produced in different forms.
491 SALT PETER Potassium Colorless or white, light yellow, grey 2 2.11 Transparent to Translucent Common Australia, Bahamas, Bolivia, Bulgaria, Germany, Chile, South Africa Potassium Nitrate Known as Saltpeter or Niter. Because of its ready solubility in water, niter is most often found in arid environments. A major source of sodium nitrate mineral ("Chile saltpeter", that is, nitratine) is the Atacama desert in Chile.
492 SMITHSONITE Calcite Grayish white, Dark gray, Green, Blue, Yellow 4.5 4.4 - 4.5 Translucent to nearly opaque Uncommon washington,USA Zinc carbonate Smithsonite rarely occurs in visible crystals. The only two locations to produce large crystals of significance are Tsumeb, Namibia; and Broken Hill, Zambia. Virtually all other findings of this mineral are in globular or botryoidal-like forms.
493 SANDSTONE Quartz Tan, brown, yellow, red, grey, pink, white 6.5 - 7 2.2 - 2.8 Opaque Common Burundi, Burma, Chad, Chile, Cuba, Egypt, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, Serbia Sedimentary Rock Sandstone is a sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-size mineral or rock grains. Most sandstone is composed of quartz and/or feldspar because these are the most common minerals in the Earth's crust.
494 SAPPHIRE Corundum Blue, colorless, pink, orange, yellow, green, purple, black 9 3.95 - 4.03 Transparent to Opaque Common Laos, Nepal, New Zealand, Pakistan, Malawi, India, Vietnam, Zimbabwe Aluminum Oxide In antiquity and as late as the Middle Ages, the name sapphire was understood to mean what is today described as lapis lazuli. Today corundums of gemstone quality of all colors except red are called sapphire.
495 SCAPOLITE Tectosilicates White, grey, light brown, pink, yellow 6 2.56 - 2.77 Translucent to Opaque Very Common Canada, Burma, Madagascar Sodium Aluminum Silicate with Chlorine Scapolite, which is the Greek word for shaft, is commonly found in stubby to long prismatic crystals. It is an aluminum silicate mineral with sodium and calcium and is part of a series whose end members are marialite and meionite.
496 SCHALEN BLENDE Beige to brown Opaque
497 SCHEELITE Scheelite Tan, golden-yellow, colorless, white, green, dark brown, colorless 4½ - 5 6.1 Transparent to Translucent Uncommon Uzbekistan, Sweden, Venezuela, Zimbabwe, Sweden Calcium Tungstate Scheelite is an important ore of tungsten which is a strategically important metal. Scheelite is a popular mineral for collectors. It forms perfect tetragonal dipyramidal crystals that look very much like octahedrons.
498 SCHIST Metamorphic Rock Green, grey, dark brown, silver 6 - 7 2.5 - 2.9 Opaque Common Varies Metamorphic Rock Schist is a crystalline metamorphic rock, mostly composed of more than 50% tabular and elongated minerals with grainsize coarse enough to be visible to the unaided eye. Schists have a developed tendency to split into layers.
499 SCIENTIST A scientist, in the broadest sense, refers to any person that engages in a systematic activity to acquire knowledge or an individual that engages in such practices and traditions that are linked to schools of thought or philosophy.
500 SCOLECITE Natrolite Colorless, white, pink, salmon, red, green 5 - 5½ 2.25 - 2.29 Opaque Common Russia, Slovakia, South Africa, Spain, Switzerland, Taiwan, Tanzania Hydrated calcium aluminum silicate Scolecite is a tectosilicate mineral belonging to the zeolite group; a hydrated calcium silicate. Its name came from the Greek word 'worm' because of its reaction to the blowpipe flame.
501 SHARK TEETH Please check fossil.
502 SELENITE Gypsum Brown-green, brown-yellow, grey-green 2 2.36 Transparent to Translucent Common Naica, Mexico; Sicily; Utah and Colorado, USA Hydrated Calcium Sulfate Selenite is a variety of the mineral gypsum and shows obvious crystalline structure. The four "crystalline" varieties of gypsum are sometimes grouped together and called selenite.
503 SEPIOLITE Sepiolite White, light grey, light yellow 2 - 2.5 2.0 - 2.1 Opaque Common China, Greece, Hungary, Kenya, Malaysia, Norway, Turkey Potassium aluminum silicate Hydroxyide fluoride Sepiolite is a clay mineral, a complex magnesium silicate. It is used in oil drilling, for cat litter. Owing to its fibrous mineral nature, sepiolite veins may contain the hazardous material, asbestos; even where asbestos is not present, sepiolite is often mistaken for it.
504 SEPTA CALCITE Please see Septaria and Calcite
505 SEPTERIA Sedimentary Bright red, golden, grey 2 - 3 2.6 Opaque Common Mexico, USA, Madagascar Calcium Carbonate Septarian concretions or septarian nodules are concretions containing angular cavities or cracks, which are called "Septaria". The word comes from the Latin word septum; "partition", and refers to the cracks/separations in this kind of rock.
506 SEPTERIA JASPER Chalcedony Red, yellow, brown, green, blue 6½ - 7 2.58 - 2.91 Opaque Common Egypt, Australia, Brazil, India, Canada, Kazakhstan, Madagascar, Russia Silicon Dioxide The appeal of Jasper is its interesting color patterns and formations. Though it can be a solid color, it is most often mottled, spotted, ringed, or striped. Each Jasper has a unique color or pattern, lending this gemstone much variety.
507 SERAPHINITE Clinochlore Dark Green, Grey 2 - 2.5 2.6 Opaque Uncommon Siberia, Russia Magnesium Iron Aluminum Silicate Hydroxyide Seraphinite is a dense fine-grained variety of clinochlore which is used for carving and as a decorative stone.
508 SERENDIBITE pale yellow, blue-green, greyish blue, black 6.5-7 3.42 - 3.52 Transparent serendibite mineral is found in skarns associated with boron metasomatism of carbonate rocks where intruded by granite.
509 SERPENTINE Serpentine Green, yellow 2½ - 5½ 2.44 - 2.62 Opaque Very Common Afghanistan, China, New Zealand and United States Hydroxyy Silicate of Magnesium There are two aggregate structures for serpentine: leafy serpentine and fibrous chrysotile. Very finely fibrous varieties are called asbestos.
510 SERPENTINE W/ MICA Please see Serpentine and Mica
511 SHELL Organic Shell White, light yellow, varies 3 - 4 2.3 Opaque Very Common Worldwide Calcium Carbonate The term seashell usually refers to the exoskeleton of an invertebrate (an animal without a backbone). Most shells that are found on beaches are the shells of marine mollusks, partly because many of these shells endure better than other seashells.
512 SHORTITE Trona Colourless, light yellow, light green 3 2.6 Transparent to Translucent Uncommon USA, Russia, Canada Sodium calcium carbonate Shortite is a sodium calcium carbonate mineral. It was discovered by J. J. Fahey in well cuttings from the Green River Formation, Sweetwater County,
513 SHATTUCKITE Silicates Bright blue, turquoise blue, dark blue 3.5 4.1 Translucent Uncommon Nambia, Congo, USA Basic copper silicate Shattuckite is an uncommon copper mineral that is highly regarded for its vivid blue color. It is named after the Shattuck Mine in Bisbee, Arizona, where this mineral was first discovered. Shattuckite occasionally forms within Quartz crystals, underneath the top layer.
514 SHUNGITE Black Russia, India Shungite has been used since the middle of the 18th century as a pigment for paint and is currently sold under the names "carbon black" or "shungite natural black
515 SIDERITE Siderite Yellow-brown, grey-brown, pale yellow, tan 3.75 - 4.25 3.96 Translucent to Opaque Common Pribram, Bohemia, Czech Republic Iron Carbonate Siderite is typically found as brown to tan rhombohedrons in clusters, faces often curved or composites; more often found as medium to dark brown massive fine grained material or as massive crystalline material with exposed curved cleavage surfaces.
516 SILICA Natural Glass Grey 7 2.648 Transparent Very Common Bolivia, Chile, India, Japan, Pacific Ocean, UK, USA Silicon Silica is a form of silicon, one of the most common elements on earth. Earth’s crust, silicon is the second most abundant element after oxygen, making up 27.7% of the crust by mass. Found in rocks and stones.
517 SILICIFIED WOOD Petrified Wood Varies 7 1.9 - 2.5 Opaque Common Hungary, Indonesia, Libya, Thailand, New Zealand Iron Oxide A variety of Chalcedony. Fossil wood replaced by chalcedony (cryptocrystalline quartz), sometimes also by opal, coal, pyrite, calcite.
518 SILICON Elemental Silicon Silicon is a chemical element with the symbol Si and atomic number 14. Silicon is rarely found in nature in its uncombined form. In fact it is amazing how rare native silicon is with 25.7% of the Earth's crust being silicon.
519 SILLIMANITE Sillimanite Light and dark green, blue 6½ - 7½ 3.24 Transparent to Translucent Common Algeria, China, India, Madagascar, Peru, Poland, Portugal, Russia, Slovakia Aluminum Silicate An industrial mineral used in the manufacture of re-fractories and high-temperature crucibles. It is a sensitive indicator of the temperature and pressure at which the host rock formed.and pressure at which the host
520 SILVER Metal Silver-white, dark grey, black 2½ - 3 10.1 - 11.1 Opaque Uncommon Belgium, Bolivia, China, Cube, Georgia Silver Silver has been known since ancient times and has long been valued as a precious metal, used to make ornaments, jewelry, high-value tableware, utensils (hence the term silverware), and currency coins.
521 SILVER EYE Please see silver.
522 SKUTTERUDITE Cobalt Arsenide Silver white to gray 5.5 - 6 6.4 - 6.9 Opaque Uncommon Spain, Canada, Germany Cobalt nickel arsenide The Skutterudite series is a group of closely related arsenide minerals with varying rates of cobalt, nickel, and sometimes iron. The cobalt-rich end member is Skutterudite, and the nickel-rich end member is Nickelskutterudite. .
523 SMARAGDITE Amphibole Green 5.5 3.24 - 3.50 Translucent to Opaque Uncommon Austria, France, Italy, USA Calcium, Magnesium, Iron Silicate A fibrous green amphibole mineral occurring in rocks such as eclogite. The color is due to small amounts of chromium. Mineralogically it is not related to emerald. An emerald imitation from fused masses is also called Smaragdite.
524 SMOKY QUARTZ Quartz Brown, black, smoky grey 7 2.65 Transparent Common Brazil, Madagascar, Russia, Scotland, Switzerland and Ukraine. Silicon Dioxide Named after its smoky color. Very dark stones are called "morion" and " cairngorm". Smoky yellow quartz also occurs. The name smoky topaz is improper and no longer acceptable in the trade.
525 SMOKY QUARTZ W/ AMAZONITE Quartz Brown, black, smoky grey 7 2.65 Transparent Common Brazil, Madagascar, Russia, Scotland, Switzerland and Ukraine. Silicon Dioxide Named after its smoky color. Very dark stones are called "morion" and " cairngorm". Smoky yellow quartz also occurs. The name smoky topaz is improper and no longer acceptable in the trade.
526 SOAPSTONE Smectite Green, brown, grey 1 - 1½ 2.2-2.8 Translucent to Opaque Very Common Australia, Chile, Norway, USA Magnesium Silicate Hydroxyide Soapstone (also called steatite) is a soft, easily-carved, fine-grained metamorphic rock that can be green, brown, or gray. This stone has a greasy, soapy feel to it, hence its name. Soapstone is found worldwide.
527 SODALITE Sodalite White, blue, grey 5 1/2 - 6 2.14 - 2.40 Opaque Common Brazil, Greenland, India, Canada, Namibia, Russia and United States Sodium Aluminum silicate with sodium chloride The name sodalite refers to its sodium content. For jewelry, only blue tones are used sometimes they have a violet tint; frequently they are dispersed with white veins from white calcite.
528 SOIL The upper layer of earth in which plants grow, a black or dark brown material typically consisting of a mixture of organic remains, clay, and rock particles.
529 SOLAR GREEN Please check greenstone.
530 SONORA AGATE Chalcedony White, grey, green, yellow, brown 6½ - 7 2.58 - 2.64 Opaque Very Common Angola, Armenia, Bulgaria, India, Jamaica, Panama, Papua New Guinea Silicon Dioxide Agate is a microcrystalline variety of quartz, chiefly chalcedony, characterized by its fineness of grain and brightness of color. Although agates may be found in various kinds of rock.
531 SONORA JASPER See Jasper
532 SOUZALITE Triclinic Blue-green, dark grey-green 5.5 - 6 3.087 Translucent to Opaque Uncommon Córrego Frio mine, Linópolis, Divino das Laranjeiras, Doce valley, Minas Gerais, Brazil Hydrated Iron Magnesium Aluminum Phosphate Hydroxyide Souzalite is a triclinic mineral containing aluminum, hydrogen, iron, magnesium, oxygen, and phosphorus
533 rphy Feldspar Plagioclase Full spectrum of colors, violet, blue, green, yellow, orange, red 6 - 6.5 2.69 - 2.72 Opaque Uncommon Finland Sodium calcium aluminum silicates Spectrolite is the name given to rare specimens of labradorite, which display a full spectrum of colors, not only violet, blue and green; but also yellow, orange and red.
535 SPECULAR HEMATITE Please see Hematite
536 SPESSARTINE (SPESSARTITE) Garnet Orange, red-brown 6½ - 7½ 4.12 - 4.18 Transparent to Translucent Uncommon Burma, Brazil, China, Kenya, Madagascar, Sri Lanka, Tanzania and United Stated Manganese Aluminum Silicate The name is a derivative of Spessart in Bavaria, Germany, the type locality of the mineral. It occurs most often in granite pegmatite and allied rock types and in certain low grade metamorphic phyllites.
537 SPHALERITE Pyrosmalite Colorless, dark brown, grey, black 3.5-4 3.9 - 4.1 Translucent to Opaque Common USA, South America, South Africa, Italy, Indonesia, Thailand, Kazakhstan Zinc sulfide Sphalerite (which is also known as Blende), is an important ore of zinc and can make a rather attractive cabinet specimen as well. It can have excellent luster and associates with many beautifully colored minerals.
538 SPHENE Sphene Yellow, brown, green, red 5 - 5½ 3.52 - 3.54 Transparent to Opaque Uncommon Burma, Brazil, Mexico, Austria, Sri Lanka and United States Calcium Titanium Silicate Sphene is a rare collector stone. Because of it's high dispersion and refractive index, a well cut sphene can display stunning brilliance.
539 SPINEL Spinel Red, yellow, brown 8 3.54 - 3.63 Transparent to Opaque Common Azerbaijan, Botswana, Burma, Fiji, Finland, France, Egypt, Germany, French Guiana, Greenland, Greece, Hungary Magnesium Illuminate Spinel is a mineral composed of magnesium aluminum oxide or any member of a group of rock-forming minerals. Several varieties of spinel are known like "Ruby spinel" is a semi-precious gemstone.
540 SPIRIT STONE (YAVAPAI TRAVERTINE) A varient of Travertine. Please see Travertine.
541 SPLASH COPPER Copper Metallic golden, brass yellow 3.2 - 3.5 8.9 Opaque Common Costa Rica, Cuba, Denmark, Eritrea, Germany, Guatemala, Israel, Jamaica, Laos, Mongolia Copper It is a varient of the metal copper.
542 SPODUMENE Spodumene Colorless, yellow, light green, emerald-green, pink-violet, white, grey 6½ - 7 3.1 - 3.2 Translucent to Opaque Common South Africa, Spain, Sweden, UK, USA, Zimbabwe Lithium Aluminum Silicate Spodumene is a pyroxene mineral consisting of lithium Aluminum inosilicate, LiAl(SiO3)2, and is a source of lithium. It occurs as colorless to yellowish, purplish, or lilac kunzite (see below), yellowish-green or emerald-green hiddenite, prismatic crystals, often of great size. It is an important industrial source if lithium and its salts.
543 SPONGE CORAL Please see coral.
544 STALACTITE (MALACHITE) Please see Malachite
545 STARBUST JASPER Please see Jasper
546 STEEL Steel is the most widely recycled material in the United States.The steel industry has been actively recycling for more than 150 years, in large part because it is economically advantageous to do so.
547 STELLERITE Zeolite White. Yellow, Pink 3.5 - 4 2.2 Transparent to Translucent Uncommon India, USA, Nova Scotia Calcium Aluminosilicate Hydrate Stellerite is the rarer cousin of the much more common zeolite, stilbite. Like stilbite, stellerite crystals can aggregate together to form a structure resembling wheat sheafs.
548 STIBICONITE Sedimentary Yellow, yellow-gray, gray, brownish-yellow, brown 4 - 5.5 3.5 - 5 Translucent to Opaque Uncommon China, Mexico Basic antimony oxide Stibiconite is an alteration mineral of Stibnite. It forms as a dull, crusty yellow replacement mineral over Stibnite. The pseudomorph is occasionally only partial, in which only a section of the crystal has been altered with the rest remaining intact.
549 STIBNITE Stibnite Lead-grey with pale blue tint 2 4.63 Opaque Uncommon Costa Rica, Cuba, Czech Republic, Ghana, Greece, Guatemala, Hungary Antimony Sulfide Stibnite has no significant uses, except as a precursor to antimony oxide, which is the most commonly marketed form of antimony. In ancient times, it was used as mascara called kohl.
550 STICHTITE Hydrotalcite Pink, Purple 1.5-2 2.16 Opaque Uncommon Australia & Tasmania Hydrated Magnesium Chromium Carbonate Hydroxyide Stichtite is a mineral, a carbonate of chromium and magnesium. Its color ranges from pink through lilac to a rich purple color. It is formed as an alteration product from chromium containing serpentine.
551 STILBITE Zeolite White, beige, peach, pink, orange, light yellow, brown 3½ - 4 2.18 - 2.2 Translucent to Opaque Common Bosnia & Herzegovina, Brazil, Bulgaria Hydrated Sodium Calcium Aluminum Silicate Stilbite is a mineral of secondary origin, and occurs with other zeolites in the amygdaloidal cavities of basaltic volcanic rocks; it is sometimes found in granite and gneiss, and exceptionally in hydrothermal veins.
552 STROMATOLITE Limestone Grey, white, dark brown 6 - 7 2.3-2.7 Opaque Common USA Calcium Carbonate Stromatolites or stromatoliths are layered accretionary structures formed in shallow water by the trapping, binding and cementation of sedimentary grains by biofilms of microorganisms.
553 STRONTIANITE Aragonite White, grey, light yellow, green, brown, colorless 3.74 - 3.78 Translucent to Opaque Uncommon Angola, India, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Malawi, Morocco Strontium Titanate Strontianite is an important raw material for the extraction of strontium. It is a rare carbonate mineral and one of only a few strontium minerals. It is a member of the aragonite groupIt is an important raw material for the extraction of strontium
554 STRUVITE Struvite Colorless, white, yellow, brown, light grey 1½ - 2 1.711 Opaque Uncommon Kosovo, Malaysia, Namibia, Netherlands, South Africa, USA Hydrated Ammonium Magnesium Phosphate Struvite (ammonium magnesium phosphate) is a phosphate mineral. Struvite crystallizes in the orthorhombic system as white to yellowish or brownish-white pyramidal crystals or in platey mica-like forms.
555 STYLOLITE Stylolite is sedimentary structure consisting of a series of relatively small, alternating, interlocked, toothlike columns of stone; it is common in limestone, marble, and similar rock.
556 SUGILITE Light brownish-yellow, purple, violet, reddish violet, pale pink, colorless 6–?6.5 Translucent Common Italy, Australia and India Cyclosilicate Sugilite was first described in 1944 by the Japanese petrologist Ken-ichi Sugi (1901–1948) for an occurrence on Iwagi Islet, Japan, where it is found in an aegirine syenite intrusive stock.
557 SULPHUR Sulphur Yellow, sulphur-yellow, green-yellow, orange, white 1½ - 2½ 2.07 Transparent to Translucent Uncommon Afghanistan, Algeria, Croatia, Gulf of Mexico, Hungary Sulfur Sulfur or sulphur is the chemical element. It is an abundant multivalent non-metal. Sulfur, in its native form, is a yellow crystalline solid.
558 SUNSTONE (ORI SUNSTONE) Feldspar Oligoclase Colorless, Yellow, Light Green, Emerald-Green, Pink To Violet, Purple, White, Gray 6 - 6½ 2.62 - 2.65 Translucent to Opaque Common India, Canada, Madagascar, Norway, Russia and United States Sodium calcium aluminum silicate Sunstone is very similar in habit to Aventurine, a form of Quartz that exhibits the same glittering Aventurescence effect. Sunstone is occasionally called 'Aventurine Feldspar' to distinguish it from its Quartz counterpart. However, Sunstone is always an orange or reddish color.
559 SUNPYRITE Please see pyrite
560 SWIRL JASPER Please see Jasper
561 SWAROVSKI CRYSTALS Synthetic Stone Swarovski is the luxury brand name for the range of precision-cut lead crystal glass and related products produced by Swarovski AG of Wattens, Austria. The Swarovski Crystal range includes crystal sculptures and miniatures, jewelry and couture, home decor and chandeliers.
562 SWIRL JASPER Please see Jasper
563 SYLVANITE Metal Grey, white, pale yellow silver-white 1½ - 2 8.16 Opaque Common Portugal, Romania, Saudi Arabia, Sweden, South Korea Silver Gold Telluride Sylvanite is one of the few minerals that is an ore of gold, besides native gold itself. The element gold is typically either found as native gold (in its elemental state), as an alloy with other metals such as silver and copper and as trace amounts in a few minerals.
564 SYNTHETIC STONES Synthetic Stone Colorless, purple, gray-white, grey, yellow-brown, yellow, pink, green Varies Varies Varies Very Common Greece, Greenland, Hungary, India, Ireland, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Kazakhstan The dream of mankind to produce artificial stones that are really the same as the natural gemstone was realized at the end of the 19th century. The French chemist A. V. Verneuil succeeded in 1888 in synthesizing rubies at commercial prices. In fact, 50 years earlier the first gemstones had been produced synthetically, but they were only of scientific interest.
565 TALC Clay Green, Grey, White, Silve 1 2.7 - 2.8 Translucent Very Common USA, Austria, Italy Magnesium Silicate Hydroxide Talc is an important industrial mineral. Its resistance to heat, electricity and acids make it an ideal surface for lab counter tops and electrical switchboards.
566 TANTALITE Oxide minerals Dark black, iron-black, dark brown, red-brown 6 - 6.5 5.918 Opaque Uncommon Malawi, Namibia, Mozambique, Norway Iron Manganese Tantalum Niobium Oxide The mineral group tantalite is the primary source of the chemical element tantalum. It is chemically similar to columbite, and the two are often grouped together as a semi-singular mineral called coltan or "columbite-tantalite" in many mineral guides.
567 TANZANITE Zoisite Blue, intense violet 6½ - 7 3.35 Transparent Uncommon Tanzania Calcium Aluminum Silicate Hydroxyide The name tanzanite was introduced by the New York jewelers Tiffany 7 Co. In good quality the color is ultramarine to sapphire blue, in artificial light, it appears more amethyst violet.
568 TEKTITES Green 5.5-0 2.34-2.51 Tektites are gravel-sized bodies composed of black, green, brown, or gray natural glass formed from terrestrial debris ejected during meteorite impacts.
569 TELLURIUM Selenium Tin-white, metallic silver 2 - 2½ 6.1 - 6.3 Opaque Uncommon Honduras, Norway, Spain, Turkey, Uzbekistan, Zimbabwe Tellurium Tellurium is extremely rare, one of the nine rarest metallic elements on Earth. It is in the same chemical family as oxygen, sulfur, selenium, and polonium
570 TETRAHEDRITE Tetrahedrite Steel to iron grey, black, pink 3½ - 4 4.97 Opaque Uncommon Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopic, Fiji, Finland, Germany Copper Iron Sulfides Tetrahedrite is named for its common crystal form, the tetrahedron. The tetrahedron is an interesting isometric crystal form.
571 THENARDITE Sulfate mineral Colorless, light grey, light brown 2½ - 3 2.664 Translucent to Opaque Uncommon Iceland, Kenya, Namibia, Netherlands, Niger Sodium Sulfate Thenardite is one of several non-marine evaporite Sulfate Class minerals. It is easily dissolvable in water and specimens should be stored with desiccant. Thenardite, which is named for the French chemist Louis J. Thenard
572 THOMSONITE Zeolite White, Yellow, Pink, Red-Green, Brown and Green 5 - 5.5 2.23 - 2.29 Transparent to Translucent Uncommon India, Germany, Italy, USA Sodium Calcium Aluminosilicate Hydrate Thomsonite is the name of a series of tecto-silicate minerals of the zeolite group. Prior to 1997, thomsonite was recognized as a mineral species,
573 THULITE Zoisite Pink 6.5 3.1-3.38 Opaque Very Common Australia, Canada, China, Germany, Worldwide Calcium Aluminum Silicate Hydroxyide Thulite (sometimes called rosaline) is a translucent, crystalline or massive pink manganese-bearing variety of the mineral zoisite.
574 TIFFANY Tiffany Stone" is an unusual material found as mineralized nodules in a beryllium tuff at the site of the Brush-Wellman beryllium mine. It is thought to be an opalized fluorite. Tiffany Stone is also known as "bertrandite" and "ice cream opal."
575 TIFFANY OPAL Please see Opal
576 TIGER EYE Quartz Gold-yellow, gold-brown 6½ - 7 2.58 - 2.64 Opaque Common South Africa, Australia, Burma, India, Namibia, United States Sodium Iron Magnesium Silicate Hydroxyide Tiger Eye typically displays stripes, because included fibers are crooked or bent. It is sensitive to acids. Found together with hawk's eye in slabs of a few inches thickness.
577 TIGER IRON Jasper Light to dark brown, red-gold 6½ - 7 2.64 -2.71 Opaque Common South Africa, Australia Iron Oxide Tiger iron is an altered rock composed chiefly of tiger's eye, red jasper, and black hematite. The undulating, contrasting bands of color and luster make for an attractive motif, and it is mainly used for jewelry-making and ornamentation.
578 TIGER IRON with matrix
579 TIGER'S EYE Tiger's Eye with matrix
580 TIN Metal White, metallic silver, black, dark brown 1½ - 2 7.31 Opaque Very Common Nigeria, Sweden, The Moon, Uzbekistan, South Korea Tin Tin is classified as a metalloid, as its chemical properties fall between those of metals and non-metals, just as the semiconductors silicon and germanium do. It resists corrosion from distilled, sea and soft tap water, but can be attacked by strong acids, alkalis, and acid salts.
581 TINCALCONITE white 1 1.88 Opaque Common Searles Lake, San Bernardino Co., California Hydrous sodium borate Most Borax specimens lose water in their structure if stored in dry areas and alter to Tincalconite. Although Tincalconite is found in a natural state, almost all specimens were transformed from Borax after being taken from the mine.
582 TINGUAITE Igenous Rock Pale- to Dark-Green 5.5 2.56 - 2.66 Translucent to Opaque Uncommon Rio De Janero, United States Metamorphosed peri-aluminous Tinguaite is an uncommon extrusive igneous rock, volcanic rock, of intermediate chemical composition between felsic and mafic, with texture ranging from aphanitic (fine-grain) to porphyritic (mixed fine- and coarse-grain).
583 TITANITE Silicates Light to dark brown, orange, yellow, yellowish-green, olive-green, emerald-green, greenish-brown 5 - 5.5 3.4 - 3.6 Transparent to opaque Uncommon Austria, Italy, Switzerland, Russia, Africa, Brazil Calcium titanium silicate Titanite is frequently called by the name Sphene, which was the more popular term for this mineral prior to 1982. In 1982, the IMA adopted the official name as Titanite and discredited Sphene.
584 TITANIUM Metal Silver-grey 4 4.506 Opaque Uncommon China, Russia Titanium Titanium is also called the “space age metal”, it has a low density and is a strong, lustrous, corrosion-resistant transition metal with a silver color. Titanium can be alloyed with iron, Aluminum, vanadium, molybdenum, among other elements, to produce strong lightweight alloys.
585 TOOLS / HARDWARE The mechanical equipment necessary for conducting an activity, usually distinguished from the theory and design that make the activity possible.
586 TOPAZ Topaz Colorless, yellow, red-brown, light blue, pink-red, violet, light green 8 3.49 - 3.57 Transparent Common Brazil, Afghanistan, Burma, China, Japan, Madagascar, Mexico, Namibia, Nigeria, Pakistan, Russia, Zimbabwe, Sri Lanka Hydroxyy silicate of aluminum with fluorite and iron The name topaz is most probably derived from a place of discovery on an island in the Red Sea, now ‘Zebirget’ but formerly ‘Topazos’. Colors of gemstone that is today called topaz are rarely vivid.
587 TOUCHSTONE (KASAUTI STONE) A black siliceous stone related to flint and formerly used to test the purity of gold and silver by the streak left on the stone when rubbed by the metal.
588 TOURMALINE Tourmaline Colorless, pink, red, yellow, brown, green, blue, violet, black, multicolored 7 - 7½ 2.82 - 3.32 Translucent to Opaque Common Sri Lanka, Western and Central Europe Complex Silicate Tourmaline has been known since antiquity in the Mediterranean region, the Dutch imported it only in 1703 from Sri Lanka to Western and Central Europe. They gave the new gemstones a Sinhalese name, 'Turamali' which is thought to mean "stone with mixed colors".
590 TRAVERTINE Calcite Golden honey, silvery green 2.5 - 3.5 2.71 Opaque Uncommon USA Calcium Carbonate A variety of Calcite. Travertine is formed by calcium carbonate dissolving in ground water and then being deposited on the earth’s surface by rivers, natural springs, or geysers. Often it is banded or layered and in pastel shades of almost any color.
591 TRONA Thermonatrite-Natron Colorless, grey-white, light yellow 2.14 Transparent to Translucent Uncommon Chad, Kenya, Libya, Switzerland, Tanzania, Turkey, Venezuela, USA Hydrated Sodium Carbonate Trona is mined as the primary source of sodium carbonate in the United States, where it has replaced the Solvay process used in most of the rest of the world for sodium carbonate production.
592 TSAVORITE Garnet Yellow, green with blue 7.25-7.5 3.84 Transparent to Translucent Uncommon Kenya, Madagascar, Tanzania Calcium Aluminum Silicate Tsavorite is one of two green varieties of garnet, though arguably the more important of the two. Especially in smaller sizes, tsavorite creates competition for emerald because it is less included, rarely treated, and more durable.
593 TSCHERMIGITE Alum White, Colorless 1.5-2 1.65 Translucent Uncommon Bohman, Czech Republic Ammonium Chloride Tschermigite is a mineral form of ammonium alum, formula. It is found in burning coal seams, bituminous shale and fumaroles. Because of its extreme water solubility it is unlikely to persist except in the dryest of conditions.
595 TURQUOISE Turquoise Sky-blue, blue-green, apple-green 5 - 6 2.31 - 2.84 Translucent to Opaque Uncommon Afghanistan, Argentina, Australia, Brazil, China, Israel, Mexico, Tanzania and United States Hydrous Copper Aluminium phosphate The name turquoise means "Turkish stone' because the trade route that brought it to Europe used to come via Turkey.
596 TURQUENITE Please see Howlite. Turquonite is howlite that is dyed blue to resemble turquoise, and is often falsely sold as turquoise.
597 TUZLAITE Monoclinic White, colorless 2 - 3 2.21 Transparent Uncommon Bosnia and Herzegovina, Germany Hydrated Sodium Calcium Borate Hydroxyide Tuzlaite is a monoclinic-prismatic mineral containing boron, calcium, hydrogen, oxygen, and sodium.
598 UNAKITE Granite Colorless, pink, green 6 - 7 2.6 - 2.7 Opaque Common USA, Brazil, South Africa, Sierra Leone Orthoclase Feldspar Unakite is an altered granite composed of pink orthoclase feldspar, green epidote, and generally colorless quartz. It exists in various shades of green and pink and is usually mottled in appearance. A good quality unakite is considered a semiprecious stone.
599 URANINITE Uraninite Black, dark brown, grey, green, green-grey 5 - 6 10.63 - 10.95 Opaque Uncommon Argentina, Brazil, Bulgaria, Gabon, India, Madagascar, Mozambique Uranium Oxide All uraninite minerals contain a small amount of radium as a radioactive decay product of uranium
601 URANIUM Metal Black, dark brown 6 19.1 Transparent to Opaque Uncommon Australia, Kazakhstan, Canada Uranium It occurs naturally in low concentrations (a few parts per million) in soil, rock and water, and is commercially extracted from uranium-bearing minerals such as uraninite.
602 UVARORITE garnet Green, emerald-green, green-black 6½ - 7 3.77 - 3.81 Transparent, Translucent Uncommon Finland, Iran, Norway,Spain, Russia, Nesosilicate Uvarovite is one of the rarest of the garnet group minerals, and is the only consistently green garnet species, with an emerald-green color. It occurs as well-formed fine-sized crystals.
603 VANADINITE Pyromorphite Orange-red, brown, yellow, pale straw-yellow, colorless 2½ - 3 6.88 Transparent Uncommon Chile, Gabon, Kazakhstan, Span, Tunisia, Uzbekistan, Zambia, Mexico Lead Chlorovanadate Vanadinite is an uncommon mineral, only occurring as the result of chemical alterations to a pre-existing material. It is therefore known as a secondary mineral. It is found in arid climates and forms by oxidation of primary lead minerals.
604 VANADIUM Vanadium is a chemical element with the symbol V and atomic number 23. It is a hard, silvery gray, ductile and malleable transition metal. The element is found only in chemically combined form in nature.
605 VARISCITE Variscite Pale, emerald-green, blue- green, colorless 3½ - 4½ 2.57 - 2.61 Opaque Uncommon Colombia, Germany, Ireland, Kazakhstan, Malaysia, Portugal, Senegal, Sweden, Venezuela Hydrated Aluminum phoshate Variscite is a relatively rare phosphate mineral. It is sometimes confused with turquoise; however, variscite is usually greener in color. Variscite is sometimes used as a semi-precious stone, and is popular for carvings and ornamental use.
606 VERDITE Fuchsite Light to dark green 3 2.80 - 3.0 Translucent to Opaque Uncommon Africa, Toba, Japan Hydroxy Fluorite silicate of potassium and aluminum Verdite is a trade name for two green stones found in Africa: Serpentine and Fuchsite. Commonly used for sculptures; increasingly also for costume jewelry.
607 VESZELYITE Green, blue, greenish blue, dark blue; 3.5-4 3.4 Translucent Moravicza (Vasko) in the Banat, Romania A rare secondary Cu-Zn mineral occurring in the oxidised zones of base metal deposits.
608 VESUVIANITE TERRAGONAL Brown, yellow, brown-black, light green, emerald green, white, red, purple, violet, blue-green to blue 6.5 3.35 - 3.45 Subtransparent to subtranslucent Uncommon Somma, Vesuvius, Italy Sorosilicate Vesuvianite, also known as idocrase, is a green, brown, yellow, or blue silicate mineral. Vesuvianite occurs as tetragonal crystals in skarn deposits and limestones that have been subjected to contact metamorphism.
609 VESONITE Please see vesuvianite.
610 VIOLANE Diopside Violet, Light Blue 5 - 6 3.22 - 3.40 Translucent to Opaque Uncommon Greece, Italy, USA Calcium Magnesium Manganese Silicate Violane is a coarse violet to light blue, manganese-rich variety of Diopside. It is translucent to opaque material from Piedmont, Italy. Violane is used for ornamental objects.
611 VIOLET STONE Please see Violane
612 VIVIANITE Phosphate Light green, dark blue, colorless 1.5-2 2.68 Transparent to Translucent Common UK, USA, Africa, Australia, South America Hydrated Iron Phosphate Vivianite is a hydrated iron phosphate mineral found in a number of geological environments. Pure fresh vivianite is colorless, but the mineral oxidizes very easily.
613 VLASOVITE Sillicate Colorless or brownish 6 2.92 - 2.97 Transparent to Translucent Uncommon Canada, Russia, Saint Helena Sodium Zircon Sulfur Iodine Hydroxide Vlasovite is a rare inosilicate (chain silicate) mineral with sodium and zirconium. It was discovered in 1961 at Vavnbed Mountain in the Lovozero Massif, in the Northern Region of Russia.
615 WATER Water is a common chemical substance that is essential for the survival of all known forms of life. In typical usage, water refers only to its liquid form or state, but the substance also has a solid state, ice, and a gaseous state, water vapor or steam.
616 WAVE JASPER Chalcedony Red, yellow, brown, green, blue 6½ - 7 2.58 - 2.91 Opaque Common Egypt, Australia, Brazil, India, Canada, Kazakhstan, Madagascar, Russia Silicon Dioxide The appeal of Jasper is its interesting color patterns and formations. Though it can be a solid color, it is most often mottled, spotted, ringed, or striped. Each Jasper has a unique color or pattern, lending this gemstone much variety.
617 WAVELLITE Phosphate Green to yellowish-green and yellow, greenish white, yellowish-brown, brown, brownish-black, blue 3.5 - 4 2.36 Transparent to opaque Common England, USA Aluminum phosphate A secondary mineral found most often in aluminous, low-grade metamorphic rocks. Usually found as radiating "starburst" clusters of green to yellow-green fibrous crystals on fracture surfaces in the matrix,
618 WHITE BONE See Fossil
619 WHITE CORAL Please see Coral
620 WHITE TOPAZ Please see Topaz
621 WILLEMITE Phenakite Colorless, white, pastel green, apple-green, light blue 3.89 - 4.19 Opaque Uncommon Ireland, Mongolia, Norway, Portugal, Tajikistan, Ukraine, Zambia Zinc Silicate Willemite is a zinc silicate mineral and a minor ore of zinc. It is highly fluorescent (green) under shortwave ultraviolet light. It occurs in all different colors in daylight, in fibrous masses, solid brown masses ("troostite"), and apple green gemmy masses.
622 WOLFRAMITE Tungstates Black, dark brown 5 - 5½ 7.1 - 7.6 Translucent to Opaque Common India, Japan, Morocco, Namibia, Mongolia, Mexico, New Zealand, Niger, Nigeria Iron Manganese Tungstate Wolframite was highly valued as the main source of the metal tungsten, a strong and quite dense material with a high melting temperature used for electric filaments and armor-piercing ammunition, as well as hard tungsten carbide machine tools.
623 WOLLASTONITE Calcium Inosilicate White, colorless or gray 4.5 - 5 2.86 - 3.09 Transparent to Translucent Common Romania, Italy, Finland, USA, China, India Calcium Silicate Wollastonite is a calcium inosilicate mineral that may contain small amounts of iron, magnesium. It forms when impure limestone or dolostone is subjected to high temperature and pressure sometimes in the presence of silica-bearing fluids
624 WOOD Wood is an organic material; in the strict sense it is produced as secondary Sytem in the stems of trees.
625 WOOD OPAL Please see Opal
626 WULFENITE Scheelite Honey-yellow, orange, red 3 6.50 - 7.00 Transparent to Translucent Uncommon China, Greece, Greenland, Hungary, Iran, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Kazakhstan Lead Molybdate Stubby, pyramidal crystal, often tabular and with a square outline. A secondary ore of molybdenum. Much sought after by collectors.
627 WYOMING JADE Please see Jade
628 YELLOW LACE AGATE Please see Agate
629 YELLOW METAL Please see Metal
630 YELLOW QUARTZ Please see Quartz
631 YELLOW TOPAZ Topaz Colorless, yellow, red-brown, light blue, pink-red, violet, light green 8 3.49 - 3.57 Transparent Common Brazil, Afghanistan, Burma, China, Japan, Madagascar, Mexico, Namibia, Nigeria, Pakistan, Russia, Zimbabwe, Sri Lanka Hydroxyy silicate of aluminum with fluorite and iron The name topaz is most probably derived from a place of discovery on an island in the Red Sea, now ‘Zebirget’ but formerly ‘Topazos’. Colors of gemstone that is today called topaz are rarely vivid.
632 YUGAWARALITE Zeolite White to Milky White 2 2.2-2.23 Transparent to Translucent Uncommon India, Japan, USA Calcium Aluminosilicate Hydrate Named after its discovery locality, Yugawara Hot Spring, Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan. A few colorless faceted gemstones have been cut from this exceptional and extremely rare material.
633 ZEBRA JASPER Chalcedony White, light yellow 7 2.58-2.91 Opaque Uncommon South Africa Silicon Dioxide The Zebra Stone is a stone composed of characteristics similar to Tiger Iron and Tiger Eye. Colors vary from dark rich browns streaked with grey to a lighter brown brushed with a cream color and some materials have shriller, like Tiger Eye.
634 ZEBRATO GRANITE Please see Granite.
635 ZINC Metal White metallic 2 6.9 - 7.2 Opaque Uncommon Guinea, Italy, Mongolia, The Moon, Russia Zinc Zinc is an essential mineral of "exceptional biologic and public health importance". Zinc deficiency affects about 2 billion people in the developing world and is associated with many diseases.
636 ZINNWALDITE Phyllosilicate mineral Grey-brown, yellow-brown, light violet, pink, silver-grey, green-grey, nearly black 2½ - 4 2.9 - 3.02 Translucent to Opaque Uncommon Egypt, Greenland, Japan, North Korea, South Africa, Tajikistan, Zimbabwe Potassium Lithium Iron Aluminum Silicate Hydroxyide Fluoride Zinnwaldite, is a potassium lithium iron Aluminum silicate Hydroxyide fluoride silicate mineral in the mica group. It occurs in greisens, pegmatite, and quartz veins often associated with tin ore deposits.
637 ZIRCON Zircon Colorless, yellow, grey, red-brown, green, brown, black, 4.6 - 4.7 Transparent to Translucent Common Angola, Antarctica, Armenia, Bangladesh, Barbados, Bulgaria, Cuba, Eritrea, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, India Zirconium Silicate Zircon is a mineral belonging to the group of nesosilicates. zircon varies between colorless, yellow-golden, red, brown, and green. Colorless specimens that show gem quality are a popular substitute for diamond.
638 ZOISITE Zoisite Colorless, purple, grey-white, yellow-grey, brown, yellow, pink, green 6 - 7 3.15 - 3.36 Transparent to Opaque Uncommon Greece, Greenland, Hungary, India, Ireland, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Kazakhstan, Madagascar, Mexico Hydroxyy silicate of calcium and aluminum Zoisite is a grayish-white or grayish-green crystalline mineral of the epidote group consisting of a Hydroxyyl silicate of calcium and aluminum. It is popular among scientist and collectors.